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The Stage-Based Development of Physically Active Leisure: A Recreational Golf Context

Daniel C. Funk, Anthony Beaton, Mark Pritchard


The current study tested the validity of the Psychological Continuum Model and its usefulness in understanding the progressive nature of participation in recreational golf. Attitudinal and behavioral characteristics that underpin each of the framework’s four different stages of increased participation were examined. Surveys were collected from recreational golfers and non-golfers (N=1224) in southern Queensland Australia. A three-step staging procedure classified respondents into one of four stages: Awareness, Attraction, Attachment and
Allegiance. MANOVA comparisons supported the distinct nature of progressive stages of participation and revealed consistent, positive links between each level’s attitudinal and behavioral indicators. Evidence supports the framework’s ability to distinguish distinct stages of physically active leisure and practical insights are offered on how recreation professionals can promote and maintain activity levels in adults.


Involvement; Activity Engagement; Stage-Based Participation; Segmentation

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