View All Journals | | Contact Us

Page Header

Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

The Perceived Difficulty Assessment Questionnaire (PDAQ): Methodology and Applications for Leisure Educators and Practitioners

Nuno F. Ribiero, Careen M. Yarnal


This learning activity introduces the Perceived Difficulty Assessment Questionnaire, or PDAQ. The PDAQ is a simple self-measure of difficulty that can be included in every assignment completed by a student (e.g., exams, quizzes, homework assignments, fieldtrip reports, etc.). The PDAQ uses a 5-point Likert scale to assess perceived difficulty and perceived length of the exercise (among other items), and incorporates a short open-ended question that requests the student’s opinion and/or comments on the exercise. Whilst still in its exploratory stage, use of the PDAQ appeared to have resulted in higher student motivation levels; increased desire by the students to improve their performance; and a more effective learning and teaching experience. The PDAQ methodology and recommendations for best practices are also discussed.


Self-assessment; student performance; perceived difficulty; student feedback

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.