University Outdoor Recreation Program Participation: Comparing Benefits, Constraints, and Willingness to Pay Between Males and Females


  • Robyn L. Ceurvorst Minnesota State University, Mankato
  • Rachelle Fuller Minnesota State University, Mankato
  • David Childers Minnesota State University, Mankato
  • Madeline Dubois Minnesota State University, Mankato
  • Sam Steiger Minnesota State University, Mankato



recreation programs, barriers, access to facilities, willingness to pay, benefits


This study examined and compared differences between gender groups regarding benefits, constraints, and willingness to pay related to university outdoor recreation programs. This information furthers understanding of these demographic groups and could assist decision makers with developing, marketing, and funding outdoor recreation programs targeted at higher education groups. Researchers crafted five hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Females will participate in outdoor recreation less frequently than males will. Hypothesis 2: Females will rate benefits for participating in outdoor recreation higher than males will. Hypothesis 3: Females will rate constraints to participating in outdoor recreation higher than males will. Hypothesis 4: Females will rate the importance of outdoor programs higher than males will. Hypothesis 5: Female respondents will be willing to pay less for university programs than males will.

Subscribe to JOREL

Author Biography

Robyn L. Ceurvorst, Minnesota State University, Mankato




Ghimire, R., Green, G. T., Poudyal, N. C., & Cordell, H. K. (2014). An analysis of perceived constraints to outdoor recreation. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 32(4), 52-67.

Little, D. (2002). Women and adventure recreation: Reconstructing leisure constraints and adventure experiences to negotiate continuing participation. Journal of Leisure Research, 34(2), 157-177. DOI:

Loomis, J.B, & Walsh, R.G. (1997). Recreation economic decisions: comparing benefits and costs (2nd Ed.). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Raymore, L. A. (2002). Facilitators to leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 34(1), 37-51. DOI:

Salant, P., & Dillman, D. A. (1994). How to conduct your own survey. New York: Wiley & Sons.

Schwartz, A., & Corkery, M. R. (2011). Barriers to participation among underrepresented populations in outdoor programs. Recreational Sports Journal, 35, 130-144. DOI:

Shores, K. A., Scott, D., & Floyd, M. (2007). Constraints to outdoor recreation a multiple hierarchy stratification perspective. Leisure Sciences, 29(3), 227-246. DOI:

White, D. D., (2008). A structural model of leisure constraints negotiation in outdoor recreation. Leisure Sciences, 30(4), 342-359. DOI:






AORE Research Symposium Abstracts