Ethical Principles Associated with Inclusive Leisure Services


  • John Dattilo The Pennsylvania State University
  • Francisco Javier Lopez Frias The Pennsylvania State University



ethical principles, ethics, inclusion, inclusive leisure, leisure


To help leisure service providers act ethically, it is valuable to raise consciousness about ethics of leisure services since leisure is intimately related to ethics. Reflection on ethical principles for supporting inclusive leisure services may assist practitioners’ action. Because there is a dearth of professional papers analyzing ethical issues, especially those pertaining to leisure, and given dangers of unethical applications of various activities associated with leisure, leisure service participants and professionals need help to identify principles to address ethical situations. To respond to this need and encourage practitioners to address ethical actions, this paper proposes twelve ethical guidelines for inclusive leisure practices and policies that cluster into three categories: universal that apply to all human beings, social that pertain to modern society, and professional that focus on leisure service providers. We propose five universal ethical principles for promoting  inclusive leisure. One such guideline establishes that leisure is a primary good. A second is respect for human dignity by acknowledging and facilitating freedom to pursue one’s view of the good life. Another is that social justice requires individuals to have access to basic goods and services to realize valued lives. Everyone has the right to self-determination is an additional principle. The fifth universal principle is that power is pervasive. The next four are associated with ethical principles specific to modern pluralistic societies. These principles include intersecting identities are commonplace, continuums are unavoidable, inclusion is good, and diversity is enriching. Finally, three principles relate to ethical application for leisure service providers, including that people: identify responsibilities arising from thier social positions, base inclusive leisure services on social justice, and consider perspectives different from their own. Consequently, this paper addresses twelve ethical principles for inclusive leisure that cluster into three categories: universal, social, and professional.


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