Meta-Analysis of Research on Children With Learning Disabilities


  • H. Lee Swanson University of New Mexico/University of California-Riverside



specific learning disabilities, meta-analysis, Intelligence, Reading disabilities, Math disabilities


The purpose of this paper is to review some of our meta-analysis findings that apply to controversial issues within the field of specific learning disabilities (SLD). Four issues are discussed: (1) What is the role of intelligence, (2) Does response to instruction (RtI) reduce the incidence of children with SLD, (3) What role do cognitive processes play in identification and treatment outcomes for children with SLD, and (4) What is the best instructional model for children with SLD? The presentation provided eight general conclusions based on a synthesis of the research literature. Although children with SLD are responsive to evidence-based instructional practices, such practices have as yet been able to eliminate the gap in achievement with average-performing peers.

Author Biography

H. Lee Swanson, University of New Mexico/University of California-Riverside

Lee Swanson is Distinguished Professor Emeritus, University of California-Riverside and is currently a Research Professor, Educational Psychology, at the College of Education and Human Sciences, University of New Mexico.