Game Performance Improvements in Sport Education and Tactical Games Models


  • Timothy Losee Plymouth State University
  • Erika D. Van Dyke Springfield College
  • Thaddeus J. France Springfield College



The Tactical Games Model (TGM) is summarized as a physical education model where the emphasis is on developing the underlying core components of games and sports to develop the tactical and performance skills of participants, known as game performance (Metzler, 2011). The Sport Education Model (SEM) is a physical education model structured and sequenced in a league-based format to provide students with a realistic feeling of being part of a sports team and to gain an understanding of all aspects of competitive organized sport. Evidence to support the SEM successfully developing game performance skills is limited and inconsistent (Farias et al., 2015). The purpose of the study was to investigate the game performance of pre-service physical education teachers in two different instructional models, the Sport Education Model (SEM) and Tactical Games Model (TGM), from pretest to posttest. Forty-six male (n = 32) and female (n = 14) participants took part in either a SEM or TGM Team Handball Unit. Each unit consisted of 10 lessons planned and implemented by the instructor. The game performance components Adjust, Support, and Passing were examined by the researchers using the Game Performance Assessment Instrument through four-minute observations in a small-sided game situation at pretest and posttest. No significant (p > .05) interaction was found between SEM and TGM instructional models over time for game performance variables. No significant (p > .05) difference was found in game performance between SEM and TGM instructional models. A statistically significant (p < .05) main effect was found for time, such that game performance scores increased from pretest to posttest for both SEM and TGM instructional models. Based on the findings of the current study, both SEM and TGM instructional models may increase game performance when instructed with fidelity. The results could be explained through understanding the connection to the SEM and Situated Learning Theory and/or team cohesion. The results have practical implications for physical educators, and directions for future research are discussed.