Trend Analysis of Therapeutic Recreation Curricula: 1970–2013
Keywords:therapeutic recreation, trend analysis, curriculum trends, micro-analysis, macro-analysis
Two long-term series of curriculum studies have examined the characteristics of therapeutic recreation (TR) curricula in the United States, and Canada when possible. One series started in 1970 with the last reported data in 2010 (Anderson, Ashton-Shaeffer, & Autry, 2000; Anderson & Stewart, 1980; Autry, Anderson, & Sklar, 2010; Stein, 1970; Stewart & Anderson, 1990). The other series started in 1999 with the last reported data in 2013 (Stumbo & Carter, 1999a, 1999b; Stumbo, Carter, & Folkerth, 2007; Stumbo, Carter, & Kim, 2004a, 2004b; Stumbo, Carter, Wilder, & Greenwood, 2013). The purpose of this study was to examine the data across both series to identify curriculum trends over time. The major findings include that most TR programs were most likely to be housed in a College of Education and a Department of Recreation and Leisure Services. Faculty numbers have fluctuated slightly over time, with the number of persons at the instructor rank rising and the number of persons in full professor positions rising in the early 2000s and then trending downward. The percentage of TR faculty who hold doctorates has also risen and fallen in the last decade. Faculty loads continue to be high with an average of three to four classes being taught per semester. Student enrollments have trended downward since a high in 1990. The majority of enrolled students have been female. Generally, estimated graduation rates rose, while estimated employment rates and certification rates fell. The number of TR courses required at the undergraduate level has increased over time. Accreditation of TR programs by COA (COAPRT, 2012 revised) has evidenced a downward trend. In addition to this micro-analysis of the data, a macro-analysis of future implications for TR higher education is also provided.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Therapeutic Recreation Journal, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Therapeutic Recreation Journal to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Therapeutic Recreation Journal, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.