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Strategic Management of NGOs in Developing Countries

Niaz Murtaza, Michael J. Austin


This literature review summarizes the knowledge in the field of strategic management of international Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) operating in developing countries, based on the analysis of 161 books and articles published since 1980. The review yields five major themes: 1) relationships with donors, 2) relationships with governments, 3) NGO coordination, 4) NGO accountability, and 5) strategic impact of NGOs. The review reflects the growing complexity of the external environment and the challenges of strategic management. In response, NGOs have developed closer relations with UN agencies, strategic partnerships with host governments, greater inter-agency coordination and management, impact assessment, and shared learning systems. The review concludes with an evolving research agenda for addressing key issues confronting the strategic management of NGOs.

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