Effectiveness of Nonprofit Organizations and Policy: A Systematic Review of Sustainable Initiatives in India


  • Julie Brenning WomanStats Project




public administration, policy evaluation, civil society, nonprofit, sex ratio at birth, child sex ratio, India, nonprofit education, nonprofit leadership


The imbalanced sex ratio at birth (SRB) is a significant factor that influences the stability and security of nations. This study sought to test whether the presence of government and civil society initiatives intended to curb the SRB in India was accompanied by a positive change in the child sex ratio (CSR) over the time of the intervention. An empirical model was created to test 112 initiatives, which included 80 state-level and 35 district-level initiatives. The CSR was calculated before and after each initiative. Of the initiatives, 51% were linked with a positive CSR over time. States that had a 5% and above positive change in the CSR also had 7+ initiatives over time, indicating that intervention may be influencing the CSR. Program best practices are recommended based on initiatives with a positive CSR over time. Based on the analysis of these findings, leadership structures of these nonprofits ought to shift toward shared leadership, and nonprofit curriculum ought to emphasize and grow international service learning programs and transnational distance learning opportunities.Subscribe to JNEL

Author Biography

Julie Brenning, WomanStats Project

Affiliate of the WomanStats DatabaseDirector of Research, Give Her Life (Non-profit)