Navigating Tensions Associated with Smartphone Use in Outdoor Recreation Settings
Keywords:mobile device, smart phone, outdoor recreation, adult education, tensions
AbstractSmartphones are increasingly appearing in outdoor recreation settings despite controversy surrounding their appropriateness. This study examined the perceptions of eight instructors of an outdoor leadership development program regarding appropriate and inappropriate smartphone use, tensions and boundaries that arise during outdoor activities, and how those tensions are navigated. Results indicate that instructors often welcomed smartphones for photography, navigation, and limited communication. In addition to travel and down time, instructors allowed those who participated in program activities to use smartphones during main activities so long as it did not interfere with program goals, distract others, or present safety concerns, even in high-risk and back-country areas. When uses were deemed inappropriate, reminders of established policies, increased communication, and social policing by other group members often resolved concerns.Subscribe to JOREL
Banducci, S. E., Ward, N., Gaspar, J. G., Schab, K. R., Crowell, J. A., Kaczmarski, H., & Kramer, A. F. (2016). The effects of cell phone and text message conversations on simulated street crossing. Human Factors, 58(1), 150–162. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720815609501
Barton, K. S. (2012). Colorado’s millennial generation: Youth perceptions and experiences of nature. Journal of Geography, 111(6), 213–223. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221341.2011.652648
Blackwell, J. L. (2015). Influences of hand-held information and communication technology on risk behavior and the experience of wilderness visitors [Master’s thesis, Humboldt State University]. Humboldt Digital Scholar. http://hdl.handle.net/10211.3/142887
Bolliger, D. U., McCoy, D., Kilty, T., & Shepherd, C. E. (2020). Smartphone use in outdoor education: A question of activity progression and place. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/14729679.2020.1730204
Bolliger, D. U., & Shepherd, C. E. (2018). Instructor and adult learner perceptions of the use of Internet-enabled devices in residential outdoor education programs. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(1), 78–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12524
Bolliger, D. U., & Shepherd, C. E. (2017). An investigation of mobile technologies and Web 2.0 tools use in outdoor education programs. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 9(2), 181–196. https://www.doi.org/10.18666/JOREL-2017-V9-I2-8228
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Pearson.
Crompton, H. (2017). Moving toward a mobile learning landscape: Presenting a mlearning integration framework. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 14(2), 97–109. https://doi.org/10.1108/ITSE-02-2017-0018
Dawson, C. P. (2007). New opportunities for educating future wilderness and wildland managers in a changing technological world. International Journal of Wilderness, 13(3), 36–39. https://ijw.org/december-2007/
Day, M., & Petrick, E. M. (2006). Designing residential wilderness programs for adults. Krieger Publishing.
Dickson, T. J. (2004). If the outcome is predictable, is it an adventure? Being in, not barricaded from, the outdoors. World Leisure Journal, 46(4), 48–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/04419057.2004.9674373
Eliasson, J., Cerratto-Pargman, T., Nouri, J., Spikol, D., & Ramberg, R. (2011). Mobile devices as support rather than distraction for mobile learners: Evaluating guidelines for design. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 3(2), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.4018/jmbl.2011040101
Georgina, D. A., & Olson, M. R. (2008). Integration of technology in higher education: A review of faculty self-perceptions. The Internet and Higher Education, 11(1), 1–8.
Hales, R. (2006). The rise of individualism. The implications for promoting relations between self, others and the environment in outdoor education. Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education, 10(2), 53–61. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03400839
Harris, A. (2020). Search (and rescue) for the ultimate selfie: How the use of social media and smartphone technology have affected human behaviour in outdoor recreation scenarios [Master’s thesis, Simon Fraser University]. Simon Fraser University Summit Institutional Repository. http://summit.sfu.ca/item/20262
Hickman, M., & Stokes, P. (2016). Beyond learning by doing: An exploration of critical incidents in outdoor leadership education. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 16(1), 63–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/14729679.2015.1051564
Hills, D., & Thomas, G. (2020). Digital technology and outdoor experiential learning. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 20(2), 115–169.
Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., III., & Swanson, R. A. (2015). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (8th ed.). Routledge.
Koole, M. L. (2009). A model for framing mobile learning. In M. Aly (Ed.), Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training (pp. 25–47). Athabasca University Press.
Lepp, A. (2014). The intersection of cell phone use and leisure: A call for research. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(2), 218–225. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2014.11950321
Lepp, A., Barkley, J. E., & Li, J. (2017). Motivations and experiential outcomes associated with leisure time cell phone use: Results from two independent studies. Leisure Sciences, 39(2), 144–162. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400.2016.1160807
Liu, M., Scordino, R., Geurtz, R., Navarrete, C., Ko, Y., & Lim, M. (2014). A look at research on mobile learning in K-12 education from 2007 to the present. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 46(4), 325–372.
Louv, R. (2008). Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder (2nd ed.). Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill.
Martin, S. (2017). Real and potential influences on information technology on outdoor recreation and wilderness experiences and management. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 35(1), 98–101. https://js.sagamorepub.com/jpra/article/view/8271
MacKay, K., & Vogt, C. (2012). Information technology in everyday and vacation contexts. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(3), 1380–1401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2012.02.001
National Park Service (n.d.). National Park Service visitor use statistics: National reports. https://irma.nps.gov/Stats/Reports/National
Nouri, J., Cerratto-Pargman, T., Eliasson, J., & Ramberg, R. (2011). Exploring the challenges of supporting collaborative mobile learning. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 3(4), 54–69. https://doi.org/10.4018/jmbl.2011100104
Outdoor Industry Association. (2017). Outdoor recreation participation: Topline report 2017. https://outdoorindustry.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Topline-Report_FINAL.pdf
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Sage.
Poff, R., Stenger-Ramsey, T., Ramsing, R., & Spencer, S. (2013). Outdoor recreation journals: A topical analysis from 2009-2012. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 5(2), 151–154. https://doi.org/10.7768/1948-5123.1215
Pope, K., & Martin, S. R. (2011). Visitor perceptions of technology, risk, and rescue in wilderness. International Journal of Wilderness, 17(2), 19–26, 48.
Rainie, L., & Zickuhr, K. (2015, August 26). Americans’ views on mobile etiquette. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2015/08/26/americans-views-on-mobile-etiquette/
Richards, L. (2009). Handling qualitative data: A practical guide (2nd ed.). Sage.
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). Free Press.
Sharaievska, I. (2017). Updating the family operating system: A literature review of information communication technology and family leisure. Leisure Sciences, 39(5), 400–414.
Shultis, J. (2012). The impact of technology on the wilderness experience: A review of common themes and approaches in three bodies of literature. In D. N. Cole (Ed.), Wilderness visitor experiences: Progress in research and management (pp. 110–118). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS-P-66). https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/40913
Sibthorp, J., Paisley, K., & Gookin, J. (2007). Exploring participant development through adventure-based programming: A model from the National Outdoor Leadership School. Leisure Sciences, 29(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400600851346
Smith, A. (2017, January 12). Record shares of Americans now own smartphones, have home broadband. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/ 01/12/evolution-of-technology
Spooner, K., & Vaughn, M. (2016). Youth sexting: A legislative and constitutional analysis. Journal of School Violence, 15(2), 213–233. https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2014.974245
Traxler, J. (2011). Introduction. In J. Traxler & J. Wishart (Eds.), Making mobile learning work: Case studies of practice (pp. 4–12). ESCalate. http://escalate.ac.uk/8250
Vaske, J. J., Shelby, B., Graefe, A. R., & Heberlein, T. A. (1986). Backcountry encounter norms: Theory, method and empirical evidence. Journal of Leisure Research, 18(3), 137–153. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.1986.11969653
Walter, P. (2013). Greening the Net generation: Outdoor adult learning in the digital age. Adult Learning, 24(4), 151–158. https://doi.org/10.1177/1045159513499551
Waterman L., & Waterman, G. (2014). Wilderness ethics: Preserving the spirit of wildness (2nd ed.). The Countryman Press.
Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). Sage.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.