"Going Green": Investigating Environmental Sustainability Practices in Camp Organizations across the United States
Keywords:Barriers, Conservation, Education, Environmental stewardship, Green purchasing, Motivations, Summer Camps, Sustainability, Triple bottom line, Constraints, Waste management
Our study explored current environmental sustainability practices of U.S. camps as well as the motivations and barriers influencing integration of sustainable operational approaches. Using a web survey of camp organizations in Spring 2021, we identified participation in sustainable actions across five broad categories: waste management, sustainability education and communication, natural resource and wildlife conservation, energy and water consumption, and purchasing and procurement. Many camp organizations already engaged in sustainable practices – especially with respect to waste management and sustainability education – but almost all camps wanted to do more. Camp organizations placed higher priority on environmental and social motivations for sustainability than economic reasons. Inadequate financial and/or technological resources was the largest perceived barrier to sustainability, though lack of awareness and capacity-building assistance was also a constraint. Results highlight strong interest in sustainability across the camp industry and reveal multiple ways to realize that potential.
Abad-Segura, E., Cortés-García, F. J., & Belmonte-Ureña, L. J. (2019). The sustainable approach to corporate social responsibility: A global analysis and future trends. Sustainability, 11(19), 5382.
Alhaddi, H. (2015). Triple bottom line and sustainability: A literature review. Business and Management Studies, 1(2), 6-10.
Álvarez Jaramillo, J., Zartha Sossa, J. W., & Orozco Mendoza, G. L. (2019). Barriers to sustainability for small and medium enterprises in the framework of sustainable development—literature review. Business Strategy and the Environment, 28(4), 512-524.
Bakos, J., Siu, M., Orengo, A., & Kasiri, N. (2020). An analysis of environmental sustainability in small & medium‐sized enterprises: Patterns and trends. Business Strategy and the Environment, 29(3), 1285-1296.
Basiago, A. D. (1995). Methods of defining ‘sustainability’. Sustainable Development, 3(3), 109-119.
Brain, R., Upton, S., & Tingey, B. (2015). Extension sustainability camp: Design, implementation, and evaluation. Journal of Extension, 53(1), 1-18.
Borowy, I. (2013). Defining sustainable development for our common future: A history of the World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission). Routledge.
Bowers, E. P., Larson, L. R., & Sandoval, A. M. (2019). Urban youth perspectives on the benefits and challenges of outdoor adventure camp. Journal of Youth Development, 14(4), 122-143.
Browne, L. P., Garst, B. A., & Bialeschki, M. D. (2011). Engaging youth in environmental sustainability: Impact of the Camp 2 Grow program. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 29(3).
Cheeseman, A., & Wright, T. (2019). Examining environmental learning experiences at an earth education summer camp. Environmental Education Research, 25(3), 375-387.
Chen, S., Kraak, V. I., Price, T. T., Love, K., Byker Shanks, C., & Serrano, E. L. (2022). Exploring food waste at a residential youth summer camp: a mixed-methods study. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 17(1), 135-148.
Dibra, M. (2015). Rogers Theory on diffusion of innovation-the most appropriate theoretical model in the study of factors influencing the integration of sustainability in tourism businesses. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 1453-1462.
Fuso Nerini, F., Sovacool, B., Hughes, N., Cozzi, L., Cosgrave, E., Howells, M., ... & Milligan, B. (2019). Connecting climate action with other Sustainable Development Goals. Nature Sustainability, 2(8), 674-680.
Garay, L., & Font, X. (2012). Doing good to do well? Corporate social responsibility reasons, practices and impacts in small and medium accommodation enterprises. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2), 329-337.
Garner, M. A., Taft, E. D., & Stevens, C. L. (2015). Do children increase their environmental consciousness during summer camp? A comparison of two programs. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 7(1), 20-34.
Garst, B. A., Browne, L. P., & Bialeschki, M. D. (2011). Youth development and the camp experience. New Directions for Youth Development, 130, 73-87.
Graci, S., & Kuehnel, J. (2011). How to increase your bottom line by going green. Green Hotels & Responsible Tourism Initiative. Available at: http://green.hotelscombined.com/Pages/MainGreen/Downloads/green-hotel-whitepaper.pdf
Hoffman, A. J., & Bazerman, M. H. (2005). Changing environmental practice: understanding and overcoming the organizational and psychological barriers. In Sharma, M., & Husted, B. (Eds), Organizations and the sustainability mosaic: new perspectives in research on corporate sustainability (Harvard Business School Working Paper No. 05-04)(pp. 1-38). Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=663564
Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277-1288.
Larson, L. R., Lauber, T. B., Kay, D. L., & Cutts, B. B. (2017). Local government capacity to respond to environmental change: Insights from towns in New York State. Environmental Management, 60(1), 118-135.
Lawson, D. F., Stevenson, K. T., Peterson, M. N., Carrier, S. J., Strnad, R., & Seekamp, E. (2018). Intergenerational learning: are children key in spurring climate action? Global Environmental Change, 53, 204-208.
Min, H., & Galle, W. P. (1997). Green purchasing strategies: trends and implications. International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, 33(2), 10-17.
Montiel, I. (2008). Corporate social responsibility and corporate sustainability: Separate pasts, common futures. Organization & Environment, 21(3), 245-269.
Russell, S. V., Young, C. W., Unsworth, K. L., & Robinson, C. (2017). Bringing habits and emotions into food waste behaviour. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 125, 107-114.
Sheth, J. N., Sethia, N. K., & Srinivas, S. (2011). Mindful consumption: a customer-centric approach to sustainability. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(1), 21-39.
Skanavis, C., Kounani, A., Tsamopoulos, K., Polymeris-Maripas, G., Koukoulis, A., Topaltsis, L., & Antonopoulos, K. (2020). Implementing sustainable development through environmental camps: the case of Skyros Project. In Universities and Sustainable Communities: Meeting the Goals of the Agenda 2030 (pp. 147-167). Springer.
Sudman, D. (2020). Going Green at camp. Available at: https://www.acacamps.org/resource-library/camping-magazine/going-green-camp
United Nations. (2015). Sustainable Development Goals: 17 Goals to Transform Our World. Available at: http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/
Ventura, A. K., & Garst, B. A. (2013). Residential summer camp: a new venue for nutrition education and physical activity promotion. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10(1), 1-9.
White, S. S. (2014). Campus sustainability plans in the United States: where, what, and how to evaluate? International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 15(2), 228-241.
Witek, L., & Kuźniar, W. (2020). Green purchase behavior: The effectiveness of sociodemographic variables for explaining green purchases in emerging market. Sustainability, 13(1), 209.
Xu, Z., Chau, S. N., Chen, X., Zhang, J., Li, Y., Dietz, T., ... & Liu, J. (2020). Assessing progress towards sustainable development over space and time. Nature, 577(7788), 74-78.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.