Dimensions Underlying an Outdoor Leadership Curriculum


  • Dene Berman Wright State University
  • Jennifer Davis-Berman University of Dayton


outdoor education, leadership, multidimensional scaling, wilderness curriculum


The dimensions underlying an outdoor education curriculum were investigated.The Wilderness Education Association (WEA) curriculumcontains 1 overarching point (judgment) and 18 other items. Twentyfour instructors rated the extent of similarity between pairs of curriculumpoints, resulting in 171 ratings for each instructor. Thesepaired ratings were subjected to multidimensional scaling, a statisticaltechnique aimed at uncovering underlying dimensions of subjectivejudgments of similarity. The resulting analysis yielded five dimensionswith stress (goodness of fit) = .147 and RSQ (correlationsquared) = .58. Graphical presentations of these dimensions areshown. The results indicate dimensions of time, travel, risk, reactivity,and a deliberation/intuition dimension. The authors suggested thata reorganization and simplification of the curriculum was in order.Implications of this reorganization were presented.



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