Developing Trends and Issues in U.S Outdoor and Adventure-Based Programming


  • Andrew J. Bobilya Montreat College
  • Tom Holman Southeast Missouri State University
  • Betsy Lindley Utah Valley University
  • Leo H. McAvoy University of Minnesota


adventure education, current issues, outdoor education, outdoor adventure programs, trends, wilderness programs


This paper explores trends and issues in outdoor and adventure-based programming in the United States. Many of the trends and issues hold valuable lessons for practitioners and scholars worldwide. The trends and issues included were gathered through interviews with a panel of professionals, checked throughout multiple regional, national and international conferences over a  two-year  period  and  supported  from the literature. The specific trends and issues discussed are: a) cultural diversity and changing demographics; b) nature-deficit disorder; c) older adult participation; d) public land access; e) professionalization of outdoor leaders, and f) program outcome accountability through evidence-based research.



Regular Papers