Academic Institutions and Field Based Practitioners: Using the Delphi Method to Analyze Foundational Philosophical Assumptions in the Field of Survival


  • Matthew S. Vosler Ohio University
  • Jasper S. Hunt Minnesota State University, Mankato


The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the prevailing philosophies of survival professionals working in the field. Survival education is a growing subject in the field of outdoor education, and with very little scholarly literature published on the subject it is imperative that we as researchers set a sound foundation of research to establish philosophical and practical ideals of the subject (Ewert, 1981). For the literature review some 200 survival based publications were categorized according to scholarly depth and intended audiences. While there were many sources available on survival or survival related topics, only two underwent a formal peer reviewed process and are of scholarly quality (Ewert, 1981; Ball, 2001).