The Solo as an Important Aspect of a Trip for Outdoor Leadership Development
AbstractSignificant research has manifest the innumerable benefits associated with the many forms of outdoor programming (see Driver & Bruns, 1999; Driver, Nash, & Haas, 1987; Ewert, 1985; 1989; Ewert et al., 2000; Hendee & Dawson, 2002; Horwood, 1999; Johnson, 2002; Pierskalla, et al., 2004; Stein & Lee, 1995; Walker, Hull, & Roggenbuck, 1998). Nevertheless each program is unique and the specific components that make up each outdoor experience can vary from program to program or even experience to experience. There are, however, several key components that are commonplace and may even be thought of as a standard of outdoor programs when it comes to important components of an outdoor trip. The solo is one of these common components. The solo dates back to the days of Kurt Hahn and is an integral part of several outdoor adventure programs including Outward Bound (OB), National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) and Wilderness Education Association (WEA) (Knapp & Smith, 2005). The benefits of a solo experience associated with outdoor trips have also been highly documented (see Bobilya, 2004; Daniel, 2003, Daniel, Bobilya, & Kalisch, 2006; McAvoy, 2000; Nicholls, 2009; Sibthorp, 2000). Nicholls even stated that the solo â€œhas gained empirical credibility as a significant component of contemporary programmingâ€ (2009, p 1). However, Sibthorp (2000), when discussing the important components of an outdoor trip (the solo experience being one specific component), acknowledged that it was not surprising that trip components were beneficial to overall leadership development; however it was not understood how or why development occurred. Furthermore, when addressing the solo specifically there is an even greater lack of understanding (Maxted, 2005). Therefore, this study addresses the question of how the solo experience influences outdoor leadership development.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.