The Effects of In-Depth Outdoor Experience on Attitudes toward Nature


  • Masahiro Okada Sendai University
  • Taito Okamura Backcountry Classroom Inc.
  • Koji Zushi Tsukuba University


wilderness experience, wilderness attitude, expedition, organized camp


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of in-depth outdoor experience on participants' attitudes toward nature. The author developed a scale of attitudes toward nature, measuring four factors: pro-environment, positive affect, camp, and environmental ethic. A wilderness experience questionnaire covering six aspects, namely oneness, timelessness, primitiveness, humility, solitude, and care (Borrie, 1995), was administered each day to 44 students in grades 4-11 who attended an 8-day camp in order to measure the degree to which they perceive nature. The scale of attitudes toward nature was administered four times during the camp: at the beginning, before a backcountry hiking trip, after the trip, and at the end of camp. Covariance analysis revealed that the group that had a deeper outdoor experience showed a significant increase in positive attitudes toward nature compared with a less deeply experienced group.



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