Effects of a College Outdoor Orientation Program on Trait Emotional Intelligence

Authors

  • Forrest Schwartz Pennsylvania State University
  • C.J. Belknap West Virginia University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18666/JOREL-2017-V9-I1-7429

Keywords:

outdoor orientation, adventure orientation, wilderness orientation, emotional intelligence

Abstract

In this research, we investigated the effects of participation in a college outdoor orientation program (OOP) on participants’ trait emotional intelligence (TEI). Three hundred seventeen outdoor orientation participants completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire – Short Form (TEIQue-SF) before and after participation in an OOP. Four unique OOP models were examined. Analysis of the data revealed statistically significant increases in TEI scores across three of the four types of OOP. Reduced levels of TEI were observed among participants of a fourth program type. First-generation college students were most likely to report lower levels of TEI at pretest. Participants with the lowest TEI scores at pretest reported the greatest increases in TEI compared to those with higher pretest scores. This research provides evidence that participation in an outdoor orientation program can significantly affect a student’s development of trait emotional intelligence. Practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. 

References

Austin, M. L., Martin, B., & Yoshino, A. (2010). The Intersection of Community and Place in an Outdoor Orientation Program. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 2(1), 74-92.

Bell, B. J. (2006). Wilderness Orientation: Exploring the Relationship between College Preorientation Programs and Social Support. Journal of Experiential Education, 29(2), 145–167. doi:10.1177/105382590602900206

Bell, B. J., Gass, M. A., Nafziger, C. S., & Starbuck, J. D. (2014). The State of Knowledge of Outdoor Orientation Programs: Current Practices, Research, and Theory. Journal of Experiential Education, 37(1), 31–45.

Bernard, H. R. (2013). Social Research Methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Devlin, A. (1996). Survival skills training during freshman orientation: Its role in college adjustment. Journal of College Student Development, 37, 324-334.

Driver, B.L. (1983). Master list of items for Recreation Experience Preference scales and domains. Unpublished document. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO: Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Gass, M. A. (1990). The Longitudinal Effects of an Adventure Orientation Program on the Retention of Students. Journal of College Student Development, 31, 33–38.

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. London: Bloomsburg Publishing.

Grbavac, M., Piggott, C., & Rougeux, M. (2003). The effects of journaling on oral communication in the classroom. Chicago, IL: St. Xavier University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 480 256)

Hill, W., Nolan, C. D., & Scrogin, J. (2010). QUESTS: An urban university outdoor experience orientation program as a retention vehicle. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 2(2), 156-158.

Parker, J. D. A., Creque, R. E., Sr., Barnhart, D. L., Harris, J. I., Majeski, S. A., Wood, L. M., et al. (2004). Academic achievement in high school: does emotional intelligence matter? Personality and Individual Differences, 37(7), 1321–1330. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.01.002

Parker, J. D. A., Summerfeldt, L. J., Hogan, M. J., & Majeski, S. A. (2004). Emotional intelligence and academic success: examining the transition from high school to university. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(1), 163–172. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00076-X

Parker, J. D. A., Hogan, M. J., Eastabrook, J. M., Oke, A., & Wood, L. M. (2006). Emotional intelligence and student retention: Predicting the successful transition from high school to university. Personality and Individual Differences, 41(7), 1329–1336. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2006.04.022

Petrides, K. V. (Summer, 2006). Deriving Factor Scores from the TEIQue-SF. Webnote #2. http://www.ioe.ac.uk/schools/phd/kpetrides/teique1.htm

Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2001). Trait emotional intelligence: psychometric investigation with reference to established trait taxonomies. European Journal of Personality, 15(6), 425–448.

Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2003). Trait emotional intelligence: behavioural validation in two studies of emotion recognition and reactivity to mood induction. European Journal of Personality, 17(1), 39–57. doi:10.1002/per.466

Petrides, K. V., Frederickson, N., & Furnham, A. (2004). The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance and deviant behavior at school. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(2), 277–293. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00084-9

Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2006). The Role of Trait Emotional Intelligence in a Gender‐Specific Model of Organizational Variables1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(2), 552–569. doi:10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00019.x

Petrides, K. V., Sangareau, Y., & Furnham, A., & Frederickson, N. (2006). Trait emotional intelligence and children’s peer relations at school. School Development, 15, 537–547.

Petrides, K. V., Furnham, A., & Mavroveli, S. (2007). Trait emotional intelligence: Moving forward in the field of EI. In G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. Roberts (Eds.), Emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns – Series in affective science (pp. 151–166). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Petrides, K. V. (2009). Psychometric properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, and J. D. Parker, Advances in the assessment of emotional intelligence. New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-88370-0_5

Qualter, P., Whiteley, H. E., Hutchinson, J. M., & Pope, D. J. (2007). Supporting the Development of Emotional Intelligence Competencies to Ease the Transition from Primary to High School. Educational Psychology in Practice, 23(1), 79-95. doi:10.1080/02667360601154584

Rode, D. (2004). The role of institutional retention. In M. J. Fabich (Ed.), Orientation planning manual (pp. 1-10). Flint, MI: National Orientation Directors Association.

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9 (3), 185–211.

Vaske, J. J. (2008). Survey Research and Analysis: Applications in Parks, Recreation, and Human Dimensions. State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Wolfe, B. D., & Kay, G. (2011). Perceived Impact of an Outdoor Orientation Program for First-Year University Students. Journal of Experiential Education, 34(1), 19–34.

Zee, K.V., Thijs, M., & Schakel, L. (2002). The Relationship of emotional intelligence with academic intelligence and the big five. European Journal of Personality, 16. Retrieved from ERIC database, doi: 10.1002/per.434

Published

2017-01-25

Issue

Section

Special Issue: Campus Outdoor Recreation Programs