Developing Student Leaders in Campus Outdoor Recreation Programs: An Appreciative Inquiry
Keywords:leadership identity development, campus outdoor programs, appreciative inquiry, environmental conditions, cocurricular outdoor program
AbstractCampus outdoor recreation programs can play an integral role in developing student leaders. In this study, we sought a better understanding of the shared positive elements exemplary outdoor programs are using to develop their student leaders. The study was designed using a collective case study methodology and the theoretical lens of the Leadership Identity Development (LID) model. Representatives from five exemplary outdoor programs were interviewed with an appreciative inquiry approach. Five common themes emerged from the data: (a) Institutional Support, (b) Transformative Experiences, (c) Meaningful Culture, (d) Facilitative Structures, and (e) the Keys to the Castle: Authentic Leadership Opportunities. Themes were interrelated and contributed to an overall understanding of the environment that allows for successful leadership development in campus outdoor programs.
Allen, S. J. & Roberts, D. C. (2011). Our response to the question: Next steps in clarifying the language of leadership learning. Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(2), 63-69.
Astin, A.W. & Astin, H.S. (2000). Leadership Reconsidered: Engaging higher education in social change. Battle Creek, MI: W.K. Kellogg Foundation.
Bass, B. M., & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications (4th ed.). New York: Free Press.
Baughman, K.N. & Bruce, J. (2011). The unique leadership needs of minority student populations: Crafting a leadership identity. Journal of Leadership Education, 10(2), 97-115.
Block, P. “Civic Engagement and Restoration of the Community: Changing the Nature
of the Conversation.” 2005. Retrieved from http://www.peterblock.com/_assets/down- loads/Civic.pdf
Block, P. Community: The Structure of Belonging. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2008.
Boettcher, M. L., & Gansemer-Topf, A. M. (2015). Examining leadership development through student leader outdoor recreation training. Recreational Sports Journal, 39(1), 49–58.
Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2010). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership (4th ed.). Hoboken, US: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from http://www.ebrary.com
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1995). In P. Moen, G. H. Elder, Jr., & K. Luscher (Eds.), Examining lives in context: Perspectives on the ecology of human development (pp. 619-647). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005). Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Bronfenbrenner, U. & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature-nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A biological model. Psychological Review, 101, 568-586.
Cameron, K. S., Dutton, J. E., & Quinn, R. E. (2003). Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
Charmaz, K. (2000). Constructivist and objectivist grounded theory. In N. K. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., p. 509–535). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Chickering, A. W. & Reisser, L. (1993). Education and identity (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Cockell, J & McArthur-Blair, J. (2012). Appreciative inquiry in higher education: A transformative force. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.
Corbin, J. M., & Strauss, A. L. (2015). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Erikson, E. H. (1980). Identity and the life cycle. New York: Norton. (Original work published 1959).
Day, D. V & Lance, C. E. (2004). Understanding the development of leadership complexity through latent growth modeling. In D. V. Day, A. J. Zaccaro, & S. M. Halpin (Eds.). Leadership development for transforming organizations: Growing leadership for tomorrow (pp. 41-69). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Day, D.V., Harrison, M.M., & Lalpin, S. M. (2009) An integrative approach to leader development: Connecting adult experience, identity, and expertise. New York, NY: Psycology Press.
Dugan, J. P., & Komives, S. R. (2007). Developing leadership capacity in college students: Findings from a national study. A report from the multi-institutional study of leadership. College Park, MD: National Clearinghouse for Leadership Programs.
Dugan, J.P., Kodama, C., Correia, B., and Associates. (2013). Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership insight report: Leadership program delivery. College Park, MD: National Clearinghouse for Leadership Programs.
Drath, W. H., & Palus, C. J. (1994). Making common sense: Leadership as meaning-making in a community of practice. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.
Fields, Andrew R. (2010). Leadership self-efficacy in university co-curricular programs (doctoral dissertation). University of the Pacific.
Glesne, C. (2011). Becoming qualitative researchers (4th ed.). Pearson.
Hall, D. T. (2004). Self awareness, identity, and leader development. In D. V. Day, A. J. Zaccaro, & S. M. Halpin (Eds.). Leadership development for transforming organizations: Growing leadership for tomorrow (pp. 153-176). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Harms, P.D., Woods, D., Roberts, B., Bureau, D., & Green, A. M. (2006). Perceptions of leadership in undergraduate fraternal organizations. The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity Advisors, 2(2). 81-94.
Hart Research Associates. (2015, January 20). Falling short? College learning and career success. Retrieved from http://www.AACU.org/leap/public-opinion-research/2015-survey-results
Keating, K., Rosch, D, & Burgoon, L. (2014). Developmental readiness for leadership: The differential effects of leadership courses on creating “ready, willing, and able” leaders. Journal of Leadership Education, 13(3), 1-16.
Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self: Problem and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Komives, S. R., Owen, J. E., Longerbeam, S. D., Mainella, F. C., & Osteen, L. (2005). Developing a leadership identity: A grounded theory. Journal of College Student Development, 46(6), 593–611.
Komives, S. R., Longerbeam, Owen, J. E., S. D., Mainella, F. C., & Osteen, L. (2006). A leadership identity development model: Applications from a grounded theory. Journal of College Student Development, 47, 401-418.
Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (1995). The leadership challenge: how to keep getting extraordinary things done in organizations. California: Jossey-Bass.
Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, MA: University Press.
Lewin, K. (1931). The conflict between Aristotelian and Galileian modes of thought in contemporary psychology. Journal of General Psychology, 5, 141-177.
Mather, P. C., & Hess, M. (2013). Promoting positive leadership. New Directions for Student Services, 2013(143), 31–40. http://doi.org/10.1002/ss.20057
Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Mezirow, J. (1997), Transformative Learning: Theory to Practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 1997 (74): 5–12. doi: 10.1002/ace.7401
Muir, D. (2014). Mentoring and leader identity development: A case study. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 25(3), 349-379.
Northouse, P. G. (2013). Leadership, Theory and practice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
O'Sullivan, E. (2003) "Bringing a perspective of transformative learning to globalized consumption." International Journal of Consumer Studies, 27(4), 326–330.
Petrie, N. (2011). Future trends in leadership development. Center for Creative Leadership White Paper. Retrieved from http://www.ccl.org/leadership/pdf/landing/FutureTrends.pdf
Priest, K. L., & Clegorne, N. A. (2015). Connecting to experience: High-impact practices for leadership development. New Directions for Student Leadership, 2015(145), 71-83.
Renn, K. A. (2003). Understanding the identities of mixed race college students through a developmental ecology lens. Journal of College Student Development, 44, 383-403.
Renn, K. A., & Arnold, K. D. (2003). Reconceptualizing research on peer culture. Journal of Higher Education, 74, 261-291.
Renn, K. A., & Bilodeau, B. Queer Student Leaders: A Case Study of Identity Development and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Student Involvement at a Midwestern Research University. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education, 2005, 3(1), 49–71.
Rost, J. C., & Barker, R. A. (2000). Leadership education in colleges: Toward a 21st century paradigm. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 7(1), 3-12.
Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. (2011). Qualitative interviewing: The art of hearing data (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Sanford, N. (1966). Self and society. New York: Atherton Press.
Speelman, E. A., & Wagstaff, M. (2015). Adventure leadership and experiential education. New Directions for Student Leadership, 2015(147), 89-98. doi:10.1002/yd.20146
Stravros, J. M. & Hinrichs, G. (2009). The thin book of SOAR: Building strengths-based strategy. Bend, OR: Thin Book.
Tingle, J. K., Cooney, C., Asbury, S. E., & Tate, S. (2013). Developing a student employee leadership program: The importance of evaluating effectiveness. Recreational Sports Journal, 37(1), 2–13.
Tracy, S. J. (2010). Qualitative quality: Eight “big-tent” criteria for excellent qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 16(10), 837-851.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.