Outdoor Orientation Leaders: The Effects of Peer Leadership
Keywords:outdoor orientation, leadership development, student development, outdoor education, outdoor leadership, self-efficacy
AbstractIn this study, we investigated how student (peer) leaders of college outdoor orientation programs understand the effects of their leadership experience on personal growth and development. We collected data through in-depth interviews of 36 first-time student leaders at four colleges. Findings indicate that the majority of students at all four colleges placed high value on their leadership experiences. Students reported that the experience led to positive changes. The experiences of the leaders are explained in a four-stage model. Student leaders believe the outdoor leadership experience increased confidence to face adversity, increased confidence in exercising one’s voice appropriately, and increased leadership self-efficacy. Students also reported a positive change in interpersonal growth, describing a better ability to work well with others and facilitate social situations. Within faith-based programs, leaders also reported significant spiritual growth.Subscribe to JOREL
Astin, A. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Austin, M. L., Martin, B., Mittelstaedt, R., Schanning, K., & Ogle, D. (2009). Outdoor orienta-tion program effects: Sense of place and social benefits. Journal of Experiential Education, 31(3), 435-439.
Bell, B. J. (2005). College students' development of social support and its relationship to pre-orientation experiences. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of New Hampshire, Durham.
Bell, B.J., Holmes, M.R., & Williams, B.G. (2010). A census of outdoor orientation programs at four-year colleges in the united states. Journal of Experiential Education, 33(1), 1-18.
Bell, B. J. & Holmes, M. R. (2011). Important factors leading to outdoor orientation program outcomes: A qualitative exploration of survey results. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, & Leadership, 3(1), 26-39.
Bell, B.J. & Starbuck, J.D. (2012, November 7). Outdoor orientation program trends at colleges and universities in the United States. Paper presented at the 2012 Association for Outdoor Rec-reation and Education annual conference, Snowbird, UT.
Bobilya, A. J., Akey, L., & Mitchell, D. Jr. (2009). Outcomes of a spiritually focused wilderness orientation program. Journal of Experiential Education, 31(3), 440-443.
Brown, M. (1996). Assessment of anticipated and actual college adjustment in freshman-oriented students. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.
Colvin, J. W. (2007). Peer tutoring and social dynamics in higher education. Mentoring & Tutor-ing: Partnership in Learning, 15(2), 165-181.
Colvin, J. W., & Ashman, M. (2010). Roles, risks, and benefits of peer mentoring relationships in higher education. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 18(2), 121-134.
Cuseo, J. (2010). Empirical Evidence for the Positive Impact of Peer Interaction, Support, & Leadership. E-Source for College Transition, University of South Carolina, March, 2010.
Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., & Mac Iver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents' experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist, 48(2), 90-101. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.48.2.90
Eccles, J. S., Lord, S. E., & Roeser, R. W. (1996). Round holes, square pegs, rocky roads, and sore feet: The impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents' experiences in schools and families. Paper presented at the Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychology, 7, 47-92.
Fields, A. (2010). Leadership self-efficacy in university co-curricular programs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of the Pacific, Stockton.
Fontana, A., & Frey, J. H. (2000). The interview: From structured questions to negotiated text. In N. K. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research, Second edition (pp. 645-672). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Gass, M. (1987). The effects of a Wilderness orientation program on college students. Journal of Experiential Education, 10 (2), 30-33.
Gass, M. (1990). The Longitudinal Effects of on Adventure Orientation Program on the Reten-tion of Students. Journal of College Student Development, 31.
Gass, M. A., Garvey, D. E., & Sugerman, D. A. (2003). The long-term effects of a first- year student wilderness orientation program. The Journal of Experiential Education, 26 (1), 34-40.
Gilbert. (1984). Salisbury State College freshmen orientation program in the wilderness. Journal of MAHPERD.
Hansen. (1982). Project Quest. Journal of College Student Personnel, 23(3).
Kuh, G. D. (1995). The other curriculum: Out-of-class experiences associated with student learn-ing and personal development. The Journal of Higher Education, 66(2), 123-155.
Lechner. (1976). The effects of Vanguard on freshmen performance. Unpublished Report, Earl-ham College, Richmond.
Midgley, C. (2002). Goals, goal structures, and patterns of adaptive learning. Mahwah, N.J., L. Erlbaum Associates.
Mittelstaedt, R. D., & Jones, J. J. (2009). Outdoor recreation self-efficacy: scale development and reliability. The Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 1(1), 109-111.
Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students: A third decade of re-search (volume 2). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Stogner. (1978). The effects of a wilderness experience of self-concept and academic perfor-mance. Unpublished Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacks-burg.
Sullivan, Sprunger & Williams. (1971). Effects of college sponsored special programs on fresh-men performance. Unpublished Report, Wheaton College, Wheaton.
Terenzini, P. T., Pascarella, E. T., & Blimling, G. S. (1999). Students' out-of-class experiences and their influence on learning and cognitive development: A literature review. Journal of Col-lege Student Development, 40(5), 610-623.
Topping, K. J. (1996). The effectiveness of peer tutoring in further and higher education: A ty-pology and review of the literature. Higher Education, 32(3), 321-345.
Wetzel. (1978). Self-Concept change in participants of a wilderness learning experience. Un-published Masters Thesis, Mankato State, Mankato, Minnesota.
Wolfe & Kay. (2007). Perceived Impact of a Wilderness Orientation Program for First-Year University Students. Proceedings from the Association for Outdoor Recreation and Education national conference.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.