The Neuroscience of Self-Efficacy: Vertically Integrated Leisure Theory and Its Implications for Theory-Based Programming
Keywords:vertical integration, theory, theory-based programming, neuroscience, leisure research
AbstractThe purpose of this paper is to explain and establish a link between social-psychological and biological explanations of self-efficacy theory. Specifically, the paper uses a hypothetical rock climbing program to illustrate how a practitioner could enhance the four sources of self-efficacious beliefs (enactive attainment, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological state), in a way that would increase the likelihood of releasing four risk/reward brain chemicals (dopamine, serotonin, oxytocin, and endorphin) while decreasing the likelihood of releasing the stress hormone cortisol. By understanding and applying self-efficacy theory at the social-psychological and biological levels—a process called vertical integration—practitioners could improve program implementation and evaluation, thereby enhancing the overall outcomes of their programs. Furthermore, adoption of a vertically integrated self-efficacy theory could help bridge the research–practice gap.Subscribe to JOREL
Baldwin, C. K. (2000). Theory, program, and outcomes: Assessing the challenges of evaluating at-risk youth recreation programs. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 18(1), 19-33.
Baldwin, C. K., Hutchinson, S. L., & Magnuson, D. R. (2004). Program theory: A framework for theory-driven programming and evaluation. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 38(1), 16-31.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.
Bandura, A. (2012). On the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy revisited. Journal of Management, 38(1), 9-44. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311410606
Barkow, J. H. (Ed.). (2006a). Missing the revolution: Darwinism for social scientists. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195130027.001.0001
Barkow, J. H. (2006b). Vertical/compatible integration versus analogizing with biology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29(4), 348-349. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X06239086
Berg, K. (2010). Justifying physical education based on neuroscience evidence. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 81(3), 24-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2010.10598445
Biglan, A. (1987). A behavior-analytic critique of Bandura’s self-efficacy theory. The Behavior Analyst, 10(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03392402
Bobilya, A. J., & Poff, R. A. (2013). Advancing theory and improving practice: Editors' notes. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 5(3), 177-178. https://doi.org/10.7768/1948-5123.1227
Breuning, L. G. (2012). Meet your happy chemicals. Lexington, KY: System Integrity Press.
Browne, L., Hough, M., & Schwab, K. (2009). Scaffolding: A promising approach to fostering critical thinking. Schole: A Journal of Leisure Studies and Recreation Education, 24, 114-119. http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/rpta_fac/45
Davis, M. S. (1971). That’s interesting. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 1(2), 309-344. https://doi.org/10.1177/004839317100100211
Duerden, M. D., Taniguchi, S., & Widmer, M. (2012). Antecedents of identity development in a structured recreation setting a qualitative inquiry. Journal of Adolescent Research, 27(2), 183-202. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558411417869
Edwards, D. H., & Kravitz, E. A. (1997). Serotonin, social status and aggression. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 7(6), 812-819. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4388(97)80140-7
Ewert, A., Davidson, C., & Chang, Y. (2016). The body doesn’t lie: Measuring stress in adventure recreation activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 48(4), 327-337. http://js.sagamorepub.com/.../187
Hemingway, J. L., & Parr, M. G. W. (2000). Leisure Research and Leisure Practice: Three Perspectives on Constructing the Research? Practice Relation. Leisure Sciences, 22(3), 139-162. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490409950121834
Henderson, K. A. (1994). Theory application and development in recreation, parks, and leisure research. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 12(1), 51-64.
Henderson, K. A., Presley, J., & Bialeschki, M. D. (2004). Theory in recreation and leisure research: Reflections from the editors. Leisure Sciences, 26(4), 411-425. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400490502471
Hurd, A. R., Barcelona, R. J., & Meldrum, J. T. (2008). Leisure services management. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Johnson, L. (2014). Cross curricular connections in elementary physical education. Missouri Journal of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 24, 14-21.
Krueger, F., Parasuraman, R., Iyengar, V., Thornburg, M., Weel, J., Lin, M., & Lipsky, R. H. (2012). Oxytocin receptor genetic variation promotes human trust behavior. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6(4), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00004
Lewin, K. (1945). The research center for group dynamics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Sociometry, 8, 126-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2785233
Madrigal, R. (1999). Comment on the impact of leisure research. Journal of Leisure Research, 31, 195-198. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.1999.11949862
Mayo Clinic (2017). Chronic stress puts your health at risk. Retrieved from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/stress/art-20046037.
More, T. A., & Averill, J. R. (2003). The structure of recreation behavior. Journal of Leisure Research, 35(4), 372-395. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2003.11950002
Ogden, J. (2003). Some problems with social cognition models: A pragmatic and conceptual analysis. Health Psychology, 22(4), 424-428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6126.96.36.1994
O’Reilly, R. C., Hazy, T. E., Mollick, J., Mackie, P., & Herd, S. (2014). Goal-driven cognition in the brain: A computational framework. [In-press] 1-63.
Parr, M. G. (1996). The relationship between leisure theory and recreation practice. Leisure Sciences, 18(4), 315-332. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490409609513291
Pessiglione, M., Seymour, B., Flandin, G., Dolan, R. J., & Frith, C. D. (2006). Dopamine-dependent prediction errors underpin reward-seeking behavior in humans. Nature, 442(7106), 1042-1045. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05051
Sharma, A., Sood, A., Dhiman, N., & Pradesh, U. (2014). Endorphin: Natural pain killer. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(3), 341-350.
Steyn, F., & Louw, D. (2012). Recreation intervention with adolescent offenders: Prospects and challenges in the South African context. African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 18(2), 423-433. http://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC123239
Sutton, R. I. (2002). Weird ideas that work: 11½ practices for promoting, managing, and sustaining innovation. New York, NY: Free Press.
Van de Ven, A. H. (1989). Nothing is quite so practical as a good theory. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 486-489. http://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1989.4308370
Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2012). A sniff of trust: Meta-analysis of the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on face recognition, trust to in-group, and trust to out-group. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(3), 438-443. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.07.008
Walsh, A. (1997). Methodological individualism and vertical integration in the social sciences. Behavior and Philosophy, 25(2), 121-136. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27759372
Wells, S. M., Widmer, M. A., & McCoy, J. K. (2004). Grubs and grasshoppers: Challenge‐based recreation and the collective efficacy of families with at‐risk youth. Family Relations, 53(3), 326-333. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0197-6664.2003.0009.x
Weisfeld, G. E. (2002). Neural and functional aspects of pride and shame. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing. http://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.0197-6664.2003.0009.x
Widmer, M. A., Duerden, M. D., & Taniguchi, S. T. (2014). Increasing and generalizing self-efficacy: The effects of adventure recreation on the academic efficacy of early adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(2), 165-183. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2014.11950318
Williams, D. M. (2010). Outcome expectancy and self-efficacy: Theoretical implications of an unresolved contradiction. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(4), 417-425. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868310368802
Wilson, E. O. (1999). Consilience: The unity of knowledge (Vol. 31). London, UK: Vintage Books.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.