Self-Efficacy of Risk Taking in Outdoor Recreation as a Predictor of the Self-Efficacy of Risk Taking in Essay Writing


  • Stacy T. Taniguchi Brigham Young University
  • John Bennion Brigham Young University
  • Mat D. Duerden Brigham Young University
  • Mark A. Widmer Brigham Young University
  • Meagan Ricks Brigham Young University



reflective writing, self-efficacy, outdoor recreation, adventure therapy


During two decades of teaching, we have observed that writing students seem more emotionally honest when their writing class is accompanied by an outdoor recreation component. The ability to take perceived risks is important to both outdoor recreation and writing; thus, we postulated that confidence gained in taking risks in outdoor experiences might affect students’ confidence in taking risks in their reflective writing. In this study, we applied Bandura’s (1997) self-efficacy theory to two classes of writing students, one that included outdoor experience and one that did not. We examined whether participating in outdoor activities would increase the self-efficacy of risk taking in the experimental group and whether this growth of self-efficacy in outdoor contexts would be accompanied by increased self-efficacy of risk taking in writing personal essays. Findings indicated significantly more growth of self-efficacy scores pertaining to risk taking in the writing of students in the experimental group versus those in the control group.Subscribe to JOREL

Author Biographies

Stacy T. Taniguchi, Brigham Young University

Department of Recreation Management, Associate Professor

John Bennion, Brigham Young University

Department of English, Associate Professor

Mat D. Duerden, Brigham Young University

Department of Recreation Management, Assistant Professor

Mark A. Widmer, Brigham Young University

Department of Recreation Management, Professor

Meagan Ricks, Brigham Young University

Department of English, Graduate Student


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