Investigating the Influence of Gender, Age, and Camp Type on the Outcome Achievements of Children Under 10 Years of Age at Summer Camp


  • Troy Bennett University of Utah



gender differences, nature, competence, outcome achievement, youth development


This study investigated the influence of gender, age, and camp type on outcome achievements for children (aged 6 to 10) at summer camp. The outcome achievements measured were affinity for exploration, affinity for nature, camp connectedness, friendship skills, independence, perceived competence, problem-solving confidence, responsibility, and teamwork skills. Three hundred thirteen campers were sampled from American Camp Association–accredited day and resident camps. Controlling for camper age, the study found an interaction effect between the type of camp attended and the gender of campers. Discriminant analysis indicated that differences were primarily due to achievements on the outcomes of affinity for nature and perceived competence. A discussion of implications of these findings for camp administrators concludes the paper.Subscribe to JOREL

Author Biography

Troy Bennett, University of Utah

My name is Troy Bennett. I am a PhD student in Parks, Recreation, and Tourism at the University of Utah.  As an educator and a researcher, I specialize in parks and recreation management; sustainable facilities and landscapes; out-of-school time programs for youth; and positive youth development.  I am interested in investigating the cumulative influence of recreation experiences; helping practitioners to improve program delivery and outcomes; and promoting conservation, sustainability, and healthy lifestyles through a connection to nature.


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