Improving Ecological Behavior in Outdoor Recreation Through Mindfulness Interventions: A Mixed Methods Inquiry
Keywords:mindfulness, outdoor education, ecological behavior, nature connectedness
AbstractOutdoor recreation professionals have long sought to impact environmental behavior of participants. Mindfulness and nature connection have recently been explored as possible constructs to impact environmental behavior. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact of mindful outdoor recreation trips on college students’ nature connectedness and ecological behavior. We used explanatory mixed methods approach to explore the relationship between mindfulness, nature connection, and ecological behavior. Quantitative findings suggest that being mindfully outdoors has a positive effect on the degree to which nature is included in the sense of self and on ecological behavior. Qualitative findings support the quantitative findings and suggest that students use mindfulness to connect with nature and to care more for the environment. These findings suggest that the use of mindfulness interventions in outdoor education programming may improve nature connection and ecological behavior.Subscribe to JOREL
Ambrose-Oji, B. (2013). Mindfulness practice in woods and forests: an evidence review. Report to the Mersey Forest. Retrieved from https://www.merseyforest.org.uk/files/documents/1248/Mindfulness and Woods Evidence Review BAO October 2013 CORRECTED.pdf
Amel, E. L., Manning, C. M., & Scott, B. A. (2009). Mindfulness and sustainable behavior: Pondering attention and awareness as means for increasing green behavior. Ecopsychology, 1(1), 14–25. doi:10.1089/eco.2008.0005
Barbaro, N., & Pickett, S. M. (2016). Mindfully green: Examining the effect of connectedness to nature on the relationship between mindfulness and engagement in pro-environmental behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 93, 137–142. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.026
Bell, B. J., Seaman, J., & Trautvein, N. (2017). Outdoor education academic programs in the United States. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 9(2), 251–253. doi:10.18666/jorel-2017-v9-i2-8264
Berry, W. (1999). A timbered choir: The sabbath poems 1979-1997. Washington D.C.: Counterpoint.
Brown, K .W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 211–237. doi:10.1080/10478400701598298
Brown, Kirk W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848. doi:10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1992
Charmaz, K. (2005). Grounded theory in the 21st century: Applications for advancing social justice studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 507–535). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Charmaz, K., Thornberg, R., & Keane, E. (2018). Evolving grounded theory and social justice inquiry. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (5th ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage.
Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. (2018). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage.
Duerden, M. D., & Witt, P. A. (2010). The impact of direct and indirect experiences on the development of environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(4), 379–392. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.03.007
Ferguson, M. A., & Branscombe, N. R. (2010). Collective guilt mediates the effect of beliefs about global warming on willingness to engage in mitigation behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(2), 135–142. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.11.010
Frumkin, H., & Louv, R. (2007). The powerful link between conserving land and preserving health. Land Trust Alliance Special Anniversary Report.
Hanley, A. W., Deringer, S. A., & Hanley, R. T. (2017). Dispositional mindfulness may be associated with deeper connections with nature. Ecopsychology, 9(4), 225–231. doi:10.1089/eco.2017.0018
Hanna, G. (1995). Wilderness-related environmental outcomes of adventure and ecology education programming. Journal of Environmental Education, 27(1), 21–32. doi:10.1080/00958964.1995.9941968
Howell, A. J., Dopko, R. L., Passmore, H. A., & Buro, K. (2011). Nature connectedness: Associations with well-being and mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(2), 166–171. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.03.037
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are : Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York : Hyperion, c1994.
Kaiser, F. G., & Wilson, M. (2004). Goal-directed conservation behavior: The specific composition of a general performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(7), 1531–1544. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2003.06.003
Kennedy, E. H., Beckley, T. M., McFarlane, B. L., & Nadeau, S. (2009). Why we don’t “walk the talk”: Understanding the environmental values/behaviour gap in Canada. Human Ecology Review, 16(2), 151–160. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24707539
Kollmuss, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the Gap: Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environmental Education Research. doi:10.1080/13504620220145401
Leopold, A. (1949). A sand county almanac. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mayer, F. S., Frantz, C., Bruehlman-Senecal, E., & Dolliver, K. (2009). Why is nature beneficial?: The Role of connectedness to nature. Environment and Behavior, 41(5), 607–643. doi:10.1177/0013916508319745
Mayer, F. S., & Frantz, C. M. P. (2004). The connectedness to nature scale: A measure of individuals’ feeling in community with nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24(4), 503–515. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2004.10.001
Miles, M., Huberman, M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analaysis. In Sage publications (3rd ed.). doi:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
Muir, J. (1894). The mountains of California. New York, NY: The De Vinne Press.
Nash, R. (1973). Wilderness and the American mind. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Nisbet, E. K., Zelenski, J. M., & Murphy, S. A. (2009). With nature to environmental concern and behavior. Environment and Behavior, 41(5), 715–740. doi:10.1177/0013916508318748
NVivo 12 [Computer software]. (2018). QSR International.
Obery, A., & Bangert, A. (2017). Exploring the Influence of nature relatedness and perceived science knowledge on proenvironmental behavior. Education Sciences, 7(1), 17. doi:10.3390/educsci7010017
Orr, D. W. (2004). Earth in mind : On education, environment, and the human prospect. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Outward Bound. (1968). Outward bound ... Into the mainstream of education. Retrieved from Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED031339)
Richardson, M., Hallam, J., & Lumber, R. (2015). One thousand good things in nature: Aspects of nearby nature associated with improved connection to nature. Environmental Values, 24(5), 603–619. doi:10.3197/096327115X14384223590131
Rosa, C. D., Profice, C. C., & Collado, S. (2018). Nature experiences and adults’ self-reported pro-environmental behaviors: The role of connectedness to nature and childhood nature experiences. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(JUN), 1–10. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01055
Ryan, R. M., Weinstein, N., Bernstein, J., Brown, K. W., Mistretta, L., & Gagné, M. (2010). Vitalizing effects of being outdoors and in nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(2), 159–168. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.10.009
Schutte, N. S., & Malouff, J. M. (2018). Mindfulness and connectedness to nature: A meta-analytic investigation. Personality and Individual Differences, 127(February), 10–14. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2018.01.034
Sheeran, P., & Webb, T. L. (2016). The intention–behavior gap. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10(9), 503–518. doi:10.1111/spc3.12265
Shultz, P. W. (2001). Inclusion with nature: The psychology of human-nature relations. In P. Schmuck & W. P. Schultz (Eds.), Psychology of sustainable development. (pp. 61–78). doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-0995-0_4
Smith, B., & McGannon, K. R. (2018). Developing rigor in qualitative research: Problems and opportunities within sport and exercise psychology. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(1), 101–121. doi:10.1080/1750984X.2017.1317357
Steg, L., & Vlek, C. (2009). Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: An integrative review and research agenda. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29(3), 309–317. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.10.004
Wamsler, C. (2017). Stakeholder involvement in strategic adaptation planning: Transdisciplinarity and co-production at stake? Environmental Science and Policy, 75(June), 148–157. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2017.03.016
Wang, J., Geng, L., Schultz, P. W., & Zhou, K. (2017). Mindfulness increases the belief in climate change: The mediating role of connectedness with nature. Environment and Behavior, 001391651773803. doi:10.1177/0013916517738036
Wilson, E. O. (1984). Biophilia. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Wolsko, C., & Lindberg, K. (2013). Experiencing connection with nature: The matrix of psychological well-being, mindfulness, and outdoor recreation. Ecopsychology, 5(2), 80–91. doi:10.1089/eco.2013.0008
Yang, Y., Hu, J., Jing, F., & Nguyen, B. (2018). From awe to ecological behavior: The mediating role of connectedness to nature. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(7). doi:10.3390/su10072477
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.