Using Means-End of Recreation Scale (MERS) in Outdoor Recreation Settings: Factorial and Structural Tenability


  • Eddie Hill Old Dominion University
  • Marni Goldenberg California Polytechnic State University
  • Xihe Zhu Old Dominion University
  • Ed Gómez East Carolina University
  • Chris Zajchowski Old Dominion University
  • Chandler Berry Old Dominion University
  • Forrest South



means-end, outdoor recreation, scale development


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Author Biographies

Eddie Hill, Old Dominion University

Park, Recreation and Tourism Studies

Chandler Berry, Old Dominion University

Park, Recreation and Tourism Studies Undergraduate Student


Selected References

Byrne, B.M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Driver, B.L. (2008). Why outcomes-focused management is needed. In B.L. Driver (Ed.), Managing to optimize the beneficial outcomes of recreation (pp. 1-18). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Freidt, B. (2008). Motivations and outcomes: A benefits based study of hiking on the Appalachian Trail (Unpublished master’s thesis). Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia.

Freidt, B., Hill, E., Gómez, E., Goldenberg, M. (2010). A benefits-based study of Appalachian Trail users: Validation and application of the benefits of hiking scale. Physical & Health Education Academic Journal (PHENex), 2(1), 1-22.

Gutman, J. (1982). A means-end chain model based on consumer categorization processes [Electronic version]. Journal of Marketing, 46, 60-72.

Hill, E., Goldenberg, M., & Freidt, B. (2009). Benefits of hiking: A means-end approach on the Appalachian Trail. Journal of Unconventional Parks, Tourism & Recreation Research, 2(1), 19-27. Retrieved from

Hill, E., Goldenberg, M., Gómez, E., Freidt, B., Fellows, S., & Hill, L. (2014). Appalachian and Pacific Crest Trail hikers: A comparison of benefits and motivations. Journal of Unconventional Parks, Tourism & Recreation Research, 5(1), 9-16. Retrieved from

Klenosky, D. B., Frauman, E., Norman, W., & Gengler, C. (1998). Nature-based tourists’ use of interpretive services: A means-end investigation [Electronic version]. The Journal of Tourism Studies, 9(2), 26-36.

Osborne, J.W., & Fitzpatrick, D.C. (2012). Replication analysis in exploratory factor analysis: What it is and why it makes your analysis better. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 17(15), 1-7. Available online:

Stevens, J.P. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (4th ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.





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