Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

The Role of Pay and Sense of Community in the Turnover of Outdoor Adventure Education Field Staff

Justin Hall, Jeremy Jostad

Abstract


Outdoor adventure education (OAE) organizations continually struggle with voluntary turnover of OAE field staff. The unconventional work environment of this unique population creates challenges and difficulties that lead to turnover. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between turnover predictor variables and intent to turnover (IT) of OAE field staff. The five predictor variables chosen were (a) tenure, (b) career development opportunities, (c) sense of community, (d) compensation satisfaction, and (e) burnout. Results suggest that compensation satisfaction’s pay subscale and sense of community were significant negative predictors of IT. These findings provide evidence for turnover predictors unique to OAE field staff. Additionally, these findings can aid OAE administrators in prioritizing time and resources when combating employee turnover.

Subscribe to JOREL


Keywords


seasonal employees; voluntary turnover; outdoor adventure education; wilderness instructor; sense of community; pay; Outward Bound; field staff

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen, D. G., & Shanock, L. R. (2012). Perceived organizational support and embeddedness as key mechanisms connecting socialization tactics to commitment and turnover among new employees. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(3), 350-369. doi: 10.1002/job.1805

Allen-Craig, S., & Moonen, B. (2002). Wages and conditions of the Victorian outdoor education profession. Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education, 6(2), 37. Retrieved from https://ezproxy.library.ewu.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/232847557?accountid=7305

Birmingham, C. (1989). Factors effecting turnover and retention of staff in outdoor adventure organizations (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, OH

Bobilya, A., Lindley, B., Faircloth, W., & Holman, T. (2017). A qualitative analysis of participant learning and growth using a new outward bound outcomes instrument. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education & Leadership, 9(2), 254-257. https://doi.org/10.18666/JOREL-2017-V9-I2-8265

Cotton, J. L., & Tuttle, J. M. (1986). Employee turnover: A meta-analysis and review with implications for research. Academy of Management Review, 11(1), 55-70. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/258331

D’Amato, L. G., & Krasny, M. E. (2011). Outdoor Adventure Education: Applying Transformative Learning Theory to Understanding Instrumental Learning and Personal Growth in Environmental Education. Journal of Environmental Education, 42(4), 237–254. doi:10.1080/00958964.2011.581313

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Field, S. C., Lauzon, L. L., & Meldrum, J. T. (2016). A phenomenology of outdoor education leader experiences. Journal of Experiential Education, 39(1), 31-44. doi:10.1177/1053825915609950

Galloway, S. (2007). Experience and medical decision-making in outdoor leaders. Journal of Experiential Education, 30(2), 99-116. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F105382590703000202

Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of Management, 26(3), 463-488. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-2063(00)00043-X

Hattie, J., Marsh, H. W., Neill, J. T., & Richards, G. E. (1997). Adventure education and outward bound: Out-of-class experiences that make a lasting difference. Review of Educational Research, 67(1), 43-87. Retrieved from https://ezproxy.library.ewu.edu/login?url=https:// search.proquest. com/docview/214116931?accountid=7305

Jaros, S. J. (1997). An assessment of Meyer and Allen's (1991) three-component model of organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51(3), 319-337. https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1995.1553

Kirby, A. (2006). Antecedents of turnover for field staff in wilderness therapy programs (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI 3204073)

Kirk, L., & O’Connell, T. (2012). Challenges facing field instructors employed in wilderness-based expeditionary programs: A review of literature. Illuminare: A Student Journal in Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Studies, 10(1), 17-27. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/illuminare/article/view/1911/1895

Klein, K. J., & D’Aunno, T. A. (1986). Psychological Sense of Community in the Workplace. Journal of Community Psychology, 14(4), 365–377. doi: https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.ewu.edu/10.1002/1520-6629(198610)14:4<365::AID-JCOP2290140405>3.0.CO;2-H

Lee, T. W., & Mitchell, T. R. (1994). An alternative approach: The unfolding model of voluntary employee turnover. Academy of Management Review, 19(1), 51-89. Retrieved from https://ezproxy.library.ewu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.ewu.edu/docview/210955075?accountid=7305

Lewis, P., & Kimiecik, J. (2018). Embracing the mystery box: how outdoor leaders discover and sustain their way of life. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 10(4), 304-322. http://dx.doi.org/10.18666/jorel-2018-v10-i4-8745

Marchand, G. (2010). Outward Bound Minnesota: An exploratory ethnography. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 2(2), 163-165. https://doi.org/10.7768/1948-5123.1060

Marchand, G., Russell, K. C., & Cross, R. (2009). An empirical examination of outdoor behavioral healthcare field instructor job-related stress and retention. Journal of Experiential Education, 31(3), 359-375. doi:10.1177/105382590803100304

Maslach, C., Jackson, S., & Schwab, R. (1986). Maslach burnout inventory-educators survey. Mind Garden Inc. Retrieved from www.mindgarden.com

Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review Of Psychology, 52(1), 397. Retrieved from https://ezproxy.library.ewu.edu/login?url=http ://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=4445608&site=ehost-live&scope=site

McCole, D. (2015). Seasonal employees: The link between sense of community and retention. Journal of Travel Research, 54(2), 193-205. doi: 10.1177/0047287513513169

McDonald, K. S., & Hite, L. M. (2005). Reviving the relevance of career development in human resource development. Human Resource Development Review, 4(4), 418-439. doi: 10.1177/1534484305281006

McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal Of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6-23. Retrieved from https://ezproxy.library. ewu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=24679691&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Mobley, W. H., Griffeth, R. W., Hand, H. H., & Meglino, B. M. (1979). Review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Psychological Bulletin, 86(3), 493. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.86.3.493

Peterson, N. A., Speer, P. W., & McMillan, D. W. (2008). Validation of a brief sense of community scale: Confirmation of the principal theory of sense of community. Journal of Community Psychology, 36(1), 61-73. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20217

Podsakoff, N. P., LePine, J. A., & LePine, M. A. (2007). Differential challenge stressor-hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 438-454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.2.438

Povilaitis, V., Riley, M., DeLange, R., Verkouw, A. J., Macklin, K., & Hodge, C. J. (2019). Instructor impacts on outdoor education participant outcomes: A systematic review. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 11(3), 222-238. https://doi.org/10.18666/JOREL-2019-V11-I3-9581

Rogers, E. B., & Rose, J. (2019). A critical exploration of women’s gendered experiences in outdoor leadership. Journal of Experiential Education, 42(1), 37-50. doi: 10.1177/1053825918820710

Rubenstein, A. L., Eberly, M. B., Lee, T., & Mitchell, T. R. (2015). Looking beyond the trees: A meta-analysis and integration of voluntary turnover research. In Academy of Management Proceedings, 2015(1), p. 12779. Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management. https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.2015.20

Schaubroeck, J., Cotton, J. L., & Jennings, K. R. (1989). Antecedents and consequences of role stress: A covariance structure analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10(1), 35-58. doi: 10.1002/job.4030100104

Simonsen, P. (1997). Promoting a development culture in your organization. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black.

Sinclair, M., O’Toole, J., Malawaraarachchi, M., & Leder, K. (2012). Comparison of response rates and cost-effectiveness for a community-based survey: Postal, internet and telephone modes with generic or personalised recruitment approaches. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 12(1), 132. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-132.

Singh, P., & Loncar, N. (2010). Pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and turnover intent. Relations Industrielles, 65(3), 470-490. doi: https://doi.org/10.7202/044892ar

Spector, P. E. (1985). Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13(6), 693-713. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00929796

Steel, R. P., & Ovalle, N. K. (1984). A review and meta-analysis of research on the relationship between behavioral intentions and employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(4), 673-686. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.69.4.673

Sturges, J., Guest, D., Conway, N., & Davey, K. M. (2002). A longitudinal study of the relationship between career management and organizational commitment among graduates in the first ten years at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(6), 731-748. doi: 10.1002/job.16

Thomas, G. (2001). Thriving in the outdoor education profession: Learning from Australian practitioners. Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 6(1), 13-24. Retrieved from https://ezproxy.library.ewu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.ewu.edu/docview/232849342?accountid=7305

Thomas, G. (2002). Work related stress in the outdoor education profession: A management perspective. Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education, 7(1), 54-63. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/232849173?pq-origsite=gscholar

US Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018). Job openings and labor turnover summary. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/jolts.nr0.htm

US Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2019). Graphics for Economic News Releases. 12-month percentage change, Consumer Price Index, selected categories. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/charts/consumer-price-index/consumer-price-index-by-category-line-chart.htm

Van Breukelen, W., Van der Vlist, R., & Steensma, H. (2004). Voluntary employee turnover: Combining variables from the ‘traditional’ turnover literature with the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(7), 893-914. doi:10.1002/job.281

Vernon, F., & Seaman, J. (2012). Co-instructing on extended wilderness expeditions: A phenomenological inquiry. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 4(3), 140-156. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/download/32863892/Vernon_2012.pdf

Wagstaff, M. (2011). Do outdoor leaders have careers? An introduction to the outdoor leader career development model. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership 3(2), 116-119. Retrieved from https://js.sagamorepub.com/jorel/article/view/6726

Wagstaff, M. (2016). Outdoor leader career development: Exploration of a career path. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 8(1), 75-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.18666/JOREL-2016-V8-I1-7284

Wallace, C. (2011) Turnover intentions of wilderness therapy staff (Unpublished master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/1274.

Werther, W., & Davis, K. (1996). Human resources and personnel management (5th ed.). Sydney: McGraw-Hill.

Williams, M. L., McDaniel, M. A., & Nguyen, N. T. (2006). A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of pay level satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 392. doi: https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0021-9010.91.2.392

Wilson, J. (2008). The role of pay satisfaction in instructor satisfaction. Journal of Experiential Education, 31(3), 400-404. https://doi.org/10.1177/105382590803100308

Wilson, J. (2010). Examining job embeddedness survey items for an adventure education population (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2022/9727




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18666/JOREL-2020-V12-I3-9974

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Sagamore Publishing LLC