Public Parks and Sno-Parks Help Diverse Populations in California’s Central Valley Negotiate Constraints to Winter Recreation
Keywords:Winter recreation, constraints, Latinx, California, sno-parks, parks
As current racial and ethnic minority groups make up increasingly larger percentages of the U.S. population, recreation managers seek to understand their recreational needs and preferences. One area has received little attention: the winter recreation participation of non-White individuals (especially Latinxs). In this study, we sought to (1) examine demographic differences in constraints to visiting a conventional winter recreation destination, China Peak Mountain Resort (CPMR); and (2) explore winter recreation site use among demographically diverse populations in various types of public parks around CPMR in Fresno County, CA, including sno-parks (sites that provide snow-cleared parking lots with sanitation facilities and access to snow play areas, cross-country ski and snowmobile trails). Data were gathered “onsite” (n=491) at sno-parks along Highway 168 and “offsite” (n=1318) in communities across the Central Valley. Data from the two sites revealed significant differences in winter recreation constraints and site use patterns among different racial/ethnic and income groups. Racial and ethnic minorities and respondents with lower household income reported high levels of constraints to participation in winter recreation at CPMR. Overall, structural constraints were the most prominent barriers affecting visitation to CPMR. Our findings showed that all respondents were more likely to visit public lands (e.g., sno-parks) for winter recreation than CPMR. Public parks and sno-parks may provide particularly unique and valuable opportunities for Latinx residents and individuals from low-income groups who are historically underrepresented with respect to winter recreation in California’s Central Valley. Overall, our results yield two key conclusions regarding winter recreation: (1) commercial resort managers (e.g., CPMR) should seek ways to minimize existing structural and cultural barriers to visitation, thereby attracting a more diverse clientele; and (2) providers should consider public lands such as sno-parks as key alternatives for diverse residents seeking winter recreation experiences—especially non-White and lowincome populations who rarely visit private mountain resorts.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Park and Recreation Administration to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.