Exploring Conflict and Tolerance Between and Within Off-Highway Vehicle Recreationists
Keywords:off-highway vehicle recreation, conflict, tolerance, goal interference
AbstractOff-highway vehicle (OHV) recreation is currently one of the fastest growing outdoor recreation activities.The increase in participation has created a need to manage for OHV recreation opportunities within a designated system of roads, trails, and areas on public lands. Also, in order to provide opportunities for quality visitor experiences, there is a dire need for additional knowledge about OHV users as it relates to all-terrain vehicle (ATV), off-highway motorcycle (OHM), and four-wheel drive (FWD) user groups. Currently, there is a lack of empirical research that specifically examines similarities and differences between and within the three OHV user groups. Furthermore, there is anecdotal evidence of perceived conflict among the user groups. In order to address this gap in empirical research, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine if perceived differences exist between and within ATV, OHM, and FWD user groups. A combination of on-site surveys and mail-back questionnaires was used to collect data at Ocala National Forest, Florida. A total of 660 surveys were distributed, and 295 were returned, for a 44.7% response rate. Conflict was likely to be asymmetrical, in which FWD users perceived the most conflict and experienced decreased enjoyment at the recreation site. Also, FWD users demonstrated the lowest tolerance, as they indicated themselves to be different than ATV and OHM user groups. Conversely, ATV users reported the least amount of perceived conflict and held the highest tolerance for out-group members. Tolerance toward in-group members was typically high among the three user groups. Based on the results of this study, conflict intensity was not strong but still demands managerial attention due to the potential for escalation of use in the area. Interpersonal conflict can be addressed by managers through direct or indirect management actions. However, FWD users’ tolerance of other user groups was shown to relate more to perceived conflict than behavioral factors. Two strategies were noted to aid managers to mitigate conflict that relates to tolerance: separate users (i.e., zoning), and 55 provide opportunities for education and communication. This research offered a first step in the comprehensive assessment of conflict and tolerance for lifestyle diversity between and within OHV users.?
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Park and Recreation Administration to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.