Leisure Behaviors Among Selected Women Living in Poverty
Keywords:Poverty, Fee Assistance, Leisure Participation, Women, Lone Mothers
AbstractThis research study explores the dynamics between leisure behavior and conditions arising from poverty. In particular, it focuses on the roles played by leisure for mothers living in poverty. The effects of a specific fee assistance program are then discussed within the context of these mothers’ lives. Seven individuals, recruited through a local not-for-profit agency, took part in semi-structured interviews that focused on their leisure behaviors. They were then asked about the fee assistance subsidy program (FAP) offered by the local city leisure agency. Two recurring themes emerged. The first was that of scarcity. Dealing with scarcity proved an ongoing challenge for these mothers. It crept into virtually every aspect of their lives. The second (and related) theme was that of chronic isolation. This isolation was both physical and social. For example, the women all expressed how they were constantly with their children and had little opportunity to interact with other adults on a regular basis. Within this context, we found that leisure played three fundamental roles in their daily lives. The first was that of bonding and companionship. Given the predominance of children in their lives, most of these mothers’ energies were directed toward their children. The second role was that of escape. Although these individuals often viewed leisure as a way to enhance family time, they also sought leisure as an outlet to escape the pressures of family life. The third role assigned to leisure was that of advancement. These mothers wanted to use leisure as a means of improving their own life conditions. In particular, they hoped to learn new skills through leisure participation.We were then interested in the ways in which these families were able to utilize the local FAP. This program provided leisure access cards to those who lived in poverty. Once applicants had established their level of need (through an application process), city staff assigned each family member an access card worth $50. Few of these mothers reported using the FAP card. One fundamental problem was its focus on program costs. Given that these women were all living in low-income settings, it was difficult for them to pay costs associated with participation in many leisure programs (babysitters, transportation, etc.). It helped little, for example, to offer free admission to a program that was too distant to reach or that required equipment one could not afford. This suggests that FAPs might be better envisioned as participation assistance programs. Their mandate might be expanded to ameliorate the effects of fees but also of transportation and any other constraints the individual must negotiate.?
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Park and Recreation Administration to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.