Place Attachment and Management of Critical Park Issues in Grand Teton National Park
AbstractTheory and empirical evidence suggest that place attachment is multidimensional, hard to define, and comprised of a wide range of constructs embodying both setting variables and personal variables (Relph, 1976; Brown & Perkins, 1992; Low & Altman, 1992). This concept has not been fully recognized and employed by past public land managers, but today’s more holistic planning involves assessing a multitude of values associated with “special places.” This paper seeks to contribute to this trend of using place attachment as a potential natural resource management tool.Place attachment was examined in terms of the basis of visitors’ attachments to Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) and the relation of those attachments to key park management issues. Using a mail-back survey distributed over four months (July-October) to park visitors, information was collected and analyzed to discover visitor opinions regarding certain activities deemed “critical issues” by GTNP managers, such as grazing and hunting in the park. In addition, information about special places in the park was collected using open-ended questions to maximize the understanding of possible place meanings. The central question of the research was: Do visitors who are affected by these critical issues differ in regards to whether they reported having a special place in GTNP? Also, among those visitors reporting a special place in GTNP, do the reasons for their attachments differ based on whether and how they report being affected by these critical issues?Results indicate that GTNP is a place that holds a multitude of meanings for visitors, including emotional and social meanings, and also meanings associated with the beautiful natural setting and outdoor recreation. In addition, visitors who reported a special place in GTNP were more likely to indicate an impact due to the critical issues than visitors who did not report a special place. Finally, the negatively affected group was more likely to describe emotional connections to the park than the positive or neutrally impacted groups. Management implications of the findings include the need to expand visitor knowledge about the critical issues, as well as the need to assess the awareness and impact of those issues at appropriate times—when the issues such as grazing are occurring. In particular, management could potentially use place attachment as a criterion for identifying stakeholders when implementing public involvement processes.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Park and Recreation Administration to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.