Trends in State Governments Expenditures on Parks and Recreation 1989/90 through 1999/2000
Keywords:state government, parks and recreation, revenue, expenditures, employment.
AbstractUS Census Bureau data were used to analyze trends in states’ expenditures on parks and recreation in the decade of the 1990s. In real dollar terms, states’ aggregate budgets increased by 47% during the decade, while their expenditures on parks and recreation increased less auspiciously by 26%. States’ expenditures on parks and recreation represented 0.55% of their total budgets. The ratio of operating to capital expenditures approximated 75:25, and self-generating revenues comprised 40% of operating expenses on average.The average per capita expenditure on state park and recreation services increased in real dollars by 11.5% during the decade, but the range of per capita investment among the states was remarkable with five states averaging less than $5 while at the other pole another five averaged over $27. The range in self-generated revenues was similarly wide. In three states, these revenues either exceeded or almost met operating expenses, while at the other extreme there were ten states whose self-generated revenues accounted for less than 10% of operating costs.During the decade, states’ capital investments in parks and recreation totaled $7.845 billion. The increase in tax revenues provided to operate this additional investment amounted to 4% of this investment. Further, full-time personnel decreased 4% in the decade, while part-time employees declined by 32 percent.To facilitate comparisons by a state with a set of states whose facility inventory, responsibilities and political philosophies are similar, complete state breakdowns of all the data analyzed in the paper are provided on a website.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Park and Recreation Administration to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.