An Examination of Fiscal Trends in Public Parks and Recreation from 1986 to 2001: A Case Study of North Carolina
Keywords:finance, trends, budgets, public recreation
AbstractAdequate funding is perhaps the single most important factor impacting the delivery of public park and recreation services at the local level. Funding influences all aspects of local parks and recreation, from the acquisition and development of areas and facilities to the creation and delivery of products and services. The purpose of this study was to examine the fiscal trends and financial status of local public parks and recreation from 1986 to 2001 in the State of North Carolina. The sample was comprised of 30 municipal and 14 county park and recreation departments that participated in the North Carolina Recreation Resources Services’ annual finance survey for each of the 15 years of the study period.Department operating and capital budgets and per capita spending were examined for the aggregate of all responding departments. Data were adjusted for inflation using the Consumer Price Index. The findings indicate that responding park and recreation departments were on stable financial ground during the study period. Inflation-adjusted increases were reported in operating budgets, capital budgets, and per capita spending for operating and capital expenditures. Local governments have traditionally used self-generated revenues, primarily taxation and user fees and charges, to support operating budgets for parks and recreation. It seems likely that the overall positive growth in operating budgets during the study period reflects, at least in part, the decision of a number of local governments to use self-generated revenues to increase levels of expenditures to support operating budgets.Capital budget increases during the study period were relatively small compared to gains in operating budgets. Since local governments no longer rely on federal grant programs to support capital development, local governments will have to increasingly fund capital budgets for parks and recreation from self-generated revenues. There will also need to be an increased emphasis on identifying new, alternative revenue sources such as exactions, certificates of participation, foundations, corporate sponsorships, and partnerships to support capital expenditures. Lastly, park and recreation managers in other states should consider legislative action such as the North Carolina Park and Recreation Trust Fund to provide a viable funding alternative to support capital development for parks and recreation.?
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Park and Recreation Administration to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.