Avoiding Project Management Pitfalls
Keywords:Project management, project definition document, multitasking, activity path merging, process flow chart, Force Field analysis, Gantt Chart, Student Syndrome.
AbstractIn many recreation organizations, a myriad of ongoing projects are staffed by employees or volunteers working more for the good of the organization than for financial reward. These human resources constitute the backbone of most projects, and individuals who are frustrated by wasted time, last-minute assignments, disorganization, and poorly planned meetings will be reluctant to serve again in the future. The good news is that many tools are available to provide your staff with a more rewarding work environment, and your organization with greater quality and efficiency. This paper will share process management tools commonly used within the business setting to make projects more cost-effective. Included will be an introduction to project definition documents, force field analysis, Gantt charts, and process flowcharts, as well as concepts such as the “student syndrome,” multitasking, activity path merging, contingency time, and “fractional head counts”.Most would agree that the first step toward successful project management starts with the drafting of a project definition document. Without clear articulation of the project’s goals and parameters, progress can be delayed as the project parameters continue to be altered. Achieving a consensus as to which goals should take priority can be challenging. Towards this end, an analysis of project and organization strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats along with the utilization of a Force Field analysis can assist project teams in identifying, addressing, and prioritizing differing viewpoints. After defining project parameters, managers can then implement a variety of management tools to assist in the development of efficient processes and procedures. For example, Gantt Charts can be a useful graphing technique to identify parallel and sequential tasks; the estimated time needed for each task; and an overall visual representation of the project timeline. As a complementary tool, Process Flowcharts can be used to predict bottlenecks and subsequent delays in project progression. Easily implemented with any size project or project team, these tools can make the job of project manager less complicated, while achieving a higher rate of satisfaction and success for all involved.If the last project or activity you directed seemed stressful, chaotic, or less than efficient, take a few moments to become acquainted with available tools designed to increase project efficiency. Avoiding project management pitfalls through the utilization of process management strategies should provide a more enjoyable and rewarding experience for both you and your project team.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Park and Recreation Administration to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.