Differences Between Motorized and Nonmotorized Trail Users
Keywords:trails, recreation, management actions, motorized, nonmotorized, technological clusters, outgroups
AbstractUnderstanding differences between various types of recreation user groups is key to planning for and managing resources to meet needs and achieve social, environmental and economic benefits. One of the outdoor recreation resources often used by recreationists is trails. The purpose of this study was to investigate how motorized users of trails differ from nonmotorized trail users as a way of understanding attitudes toward support for trail access for recreation activities, perceptions of importance of trail-related issues, and importance of specific trail management actions. Three groups of trail users, segmented according to technological dependence, were examined: (1) motorized users, (2) mixed users, and (3) nonmotorized users. Data were collected in Arizona, and a statewide sampling frame was applied. A combination of phone and mail instruments gathered data on trail opportunities in the state. The phone survey identified residents who participated in either motorized or nonmotorized trail uses, then the mail instrument gathered detailed information on level of trail use and opinions about various topics. This paper is based on 1,216 cases from the mail survey. Findings suggest motorized and nonmotorized trail users do differ and tend to feel access for their respective form of recreation is more important than access for other uses. All users preferred trails be managed for multiple uses but with motorized and nonmotorized activities separated. However, motorized and nonmotorized users were stronger supporters of single-activity trail use than the mixed users group. For specific recreation activities, motorized trail users were significantly more likely to feel access for motorized activities was more important than did nonmotorized users and vice versa. Greater overall support of nonmotorized trail activities was found with both motorized and nonmotorized users. Trail issues carried different levels of importance across the trail user groups. Motorized users expressed greater concern for litter and trash along trails, support for motorized recreation, and access to trails than did nonmotorized users. Nonmotorized users expressed greater concern for trail-funding issues and availability of directional signs. Translating issues into actions, nonmotorized trail users rated several management actions as being significantly more important than did motorized users. These results suggest agencies should maintain existing trails by repairing those that have been over used or are deteriorating. Managers may gain insight into two different groups, motorized and nonmotorized trail users.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Park and Recreation Administration to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.