Partnering: The Complementary Assets of Businesses and Park and Recreation Agencies
Keywords:partnerships, parks and recreation, businesses, opportunities, barriers.
AbstractEstablishing partnerships with commercial entities is of growing importance to park and recreation agencies. The successful pursuit and cementation of such relationships is dependent upon an understanding of the contributions that both parties can contribute to a partnership. The intent of these arrangements is to combine the strengths and assets of each party, to produce selected· facilities or services more efficiently than if either party produced them independently.A park and recreation agency has four major assets it can contribute to a partnership. First, it is likely to have substantial land holdings, some of which could potentially be leased. Second, it has access to low cost capital because government bonds are tax exempt. Third, the public sector has the authority to substantially reduce the property tax payments of commercial enterprises by offering them tax abatements. Finally, governments have the ability to expedite permit and zoning applications, which can accelerate the development process and substantially reduce costs incurred on development loans.The commercial sector has five types of assets that it could contribute to a partnership. In contrast to a park and recreation agency, businesses can raise capital quickly to respond to market opportunities. The only requirement is that they demonstrate to directors, investors and bankers that the venue is likely to generate a satisfactory return on investment. A second asset is the availability of specialist management expertise in some aspects of the eclectic park and recreation field that may complement the expertise of agency managers. The labor intensive nature of park and recreation services, makes the cost of personnel a major element in the cost of service delivery, and in some contexts businesses may be able to operate with reduced labor costs. A fourth asset is the greater agility ofbusinesses which are not inhibited by the bureaucratic procedures to which many agency managers have to adhere. This permits greater adaptability to changes in scale of service. Finally, partnering with businesses may enable agencies to shift liability risks to their private sector partners.Potential barriers to cooperation between agencies and commercial entities are addressed. These focus on different value systems, organizational milieus and levels of budget flexibility, and the issue of control. Frustration with these differences often coalesces into negative stereotypes. It is suggested that these are frequently false, and reasons for their evolvement are offered.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Park and Recreation Administration to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.