Career Advancement Perceptions Held by Female Middle Managers Compared to Male Middle Managers


  • Margaret L. Arnold
  • Kimberly J. Shinew


gender, promotion, obstacles, career advancement, management.


Despite decade-long trends of women's involvement both in leisure studies curricula and in the leisure profession, women remain underrepresented in administrative positions, particularly at the executive level. In an effort to gain insight into this situation, the present study examined issues regarding career advancement among male and female middle managers for public leisure service agencies. The study focused on perceptions of success, obstacles toward promotion, aspirations and preparedness for senior management positions, and the desire for promotion during one's career. The findings suggested that men viewed income as an important indicator of success whereas women were more likely to view satisfying work as important. Women reported more gender-related issues as obstacles toward advancement and felt less prepared for senior management positions. Men were more likely to aspire to reach executive status and further, women were less likely to desire a promotion during their career. These findings have implications for how to improve the number of qualified women in middle and senior management positions.





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