Going Beyond ImportancePerformance Analysis to Analyze the Observance-Influence of Park Impacts


  • William E. Hammitt
  • Robert D. Bixler
  • Francis P. Noe


Importance-Performance, Observance-Influence, recreation impacts, national parks, canonical correlation.


Importance-Performance analysis is a commonly used technique to evaluate the importance of various recreation programs and the performance of recreation administrators toward providing these programs. In this study, the Importance-Performance technique was adapted to present a new approach for analyzing the observance of various park use and resource impacts by on-site visitors, and the influence that these impact conditions have on park visitor experiences. The study also expanded the Observance-Influence grid analysis approach to park impacts by examining the multivariate relationship between the two sets of variables, using canonical correlation. The primary purpose of the research was to propose an alternative approach to analyzing park impact issues which may prove useful to park administrators; and not to just analyze park impacts per se. A case study analysis of mail questionnaire respondents revealed that the Observance-Influence grid analysis model has considerable utility for park administrators in analyzing visitor perceptions of park impacts. In addition, canonical correlation proved to be a useful tool for analyzing the Observance-Influence relationship beyond the descriptive techniques offered by action grid analyses. Impacts shown to be of most concern related to: multiple use of trails, litter, erosion, and depreciative behaviors.





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