Conservation through Partnership: Landscape Management Within National Parks in England and Wales


  • Guy S. Swinnerton


Partnership, national parks, protected landscapes, conservation, landscape management, environmentally friendly farming.


Partnership and cooperation have become increasingly important in the designation and subsequent planning and management of protected areas throughout the world. The operation of National Parks in England and Wales provides a particularly good example of the importance of partnerships between different public sector agencies and private landowners due to the fact that most of the land within the Parks remains in private ownership. This paper examines the way in which national agencies responsible for conservation, together with the individual National Park Authorities, have pursued their conservation mandate through cooperation and partnership with agricultural interests and individual farmers and landowners. Although there has been considerable progress in developing these partnerships, which involve regulation, advisory services, and financial instruments, the distinctive landscapes of the National Parks remain under constant pressure from modern agriculture and other land uses.





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