Theory and Application of Triangulation to Public Park and Recreation Planning


  • Daniel G. Yoder
  • William McKinney
  • Bruce Wicks
  • Robert Espeseth


triangulation, research methods, planning, park and recreation agencies, pre-planning, long-range plans, master plans, mixed methods


Long-range master planning in public park and recreation agencies is often ineffective because planners approach it without a thorough understanding of data collection and interpretation principles. This paper focuses on triangulation, the process of collecting information from multiple sources with more than one research method and one of the principles on which modern planning is based. Advances in computer technology allow planners to employ triangulation to develop and manipulate large and complex data bases; however, the information mustbe gathered systematically, processed effectively, and thoughtfully integrated for maximum results. The theory and application of triangulation is examined as it was successfully employed in a planning project, including the pre-planning phase, in a public park and recreation agency.





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