An Examination and Comparison of Work Motivators in Public, Private/ Commercial, Nonprofit, and Armed Forces Leisure Service Organizations


  • Samuel V. Lankford
  • Larry L. Neal
  • Barton P. Buxton


Motivation, Herzberg, personnel assessment, private/commercial recreation, Armed Forces recreation, nonprofit recreation, public recreation.


Considering the rapid changes in society and leisure services, it is essential for leisure managers to gain new insights into employee motivation. Motivation is viewed by many as an integral part of the management process and a basis for increased productivity. Employees of public, private/commercial, nonprofit and Armed Forces leisure service organizations were surveyed to determine: (1) the work motivators of each leisure service sector, and (2) the differences and similarities between the four service sectors concerning attitudes toward the motivational factors using Herzberg's two-factor motivation/hygiene theory. The groups differed significantly with respect to the rankings of the motivation items. Given the findings that the four groups significantly differed on 10 out of the 16 motivation statements, it could be suggested that work situations, promotions, and management systems differ by leisure service sector. Interestingly, this study is not consistent with other studies using the instrument.





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