Recreation Leadership as a System of Social Ties


  • Patricia A. Stokowski
  • Patrick T. Long
  • Jonelle S. Nuckolls


Recreation leadership, organizational environment, boundary- spanning individuals, rural recreation services.


Traditional analyses of recreation leadership have two themes: an individual-centered approach to leadership behavior, and the location of leadership activities within the internal organizational context Together, these themes encourage leadership research based on a "closed-system" organizational model. However, general sociological theories of leadership confirm that a leader's behavior is also influenced by social ties with others in the organizational environment. This paper presents some limited data from a study of recreation specialists suggesting that at least some leaders perform boundary-spanning roles for recreation organizations. Their relationships with others in the external environment provided information, informal job performance reviews, encouragement, and support This paper suggests the need for an "open-systems" model of organizational behavior and further research into the organization-environment interactions of recreation systems.





Regular Papers