Effects of Impression Management on Upper-Level Leisure Service Personnel Performance Appraisal


  • Laura Valerius
  • William R. McKinney


Organizational behavior, political behavior, impression management, ingratiation, performance appraisal, influence tactics.


Despite the commonly observed phenomena of political behavior in organizations, little research has addressed the supervisor/subordinate relationship as managed by the subordinate. This study focuses on the subordinate impression management (IM) behavior of ingratiation which has the purpose of gaining the approbation and significant rewards controlled by a supervisor. Specifically, the research questions associated with this study are: (1) What is the relationship between an employee's perception of rewards being politically determined and their engagement in IM? and (2) What is the relationship between employees' participation in ingratiating behavior and their performance appraisal ratings? Seventy-four dyads of directors of parks and recreation and superintendents of parks or recreation from a midwestern state completed the two distinct but comparable survey instruments. Results of the study indicate that there is a strong link between a superintendent's use of IM and his or her perception of receiving informal rewards. Further, engagement by the superintendent iniM may have a significant impact on performance appraisal ratings. The findings suggest that park or recreation superintendents tend to use IM when interacting with their- director and that ingratiators will be rewarded for their behavior.





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