The Programming Process Revisited: Assumptions Underlying the Needs Based Models


  • Christine Z. Howe
  • Yijin Qui


Leisure programming, psychology of leisure, needs assessment, needs.


Contemporary literature in the field appears to advocate a needs-based approach to recreation programming through several recursive models. These needs-based, cyclical models typically have the following elements in common: an initial leisure needs assessment on which a program plan is based, implementation of the program, a formative and summative evaluation of the program, and the revision of the program. This type of approach is comprehensive and continuous.This article concerns the needs assessment component of the needs-based approach to leisure programming by examining the assumptions that underlie it. The purpose of the article is to analyze the needs-based approach to programming by making the underlying assumptions of its first step explicit and then by examining the assumptions in light of theory and professional practice. Findings suggest that a needs-based programming approach is grounded in psychological assumptions that are highly compatible with implementing leisure as a state of mind or being.





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