Leisure and Recreation Needs or Motivations as a Basis for Program Planning


  • Mounir G. Ragheb


Program planning, leisure motivations or needs, stimulus seeking, stimulus avoidance, competence/mastery, intensity of motivations or needs.


This investigation explored the application of social psychological concepts to gain an understanding of the underlying dynamics of leisure needs or motivations as a foundation for planning and programming. It was intended to compare leisure needs among different groups of a selected set of demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, years of education, employment, occupation, and income. Leisure needs or motivations were based on subscales tested by Beard and Ragheb. They included intensity, intellectual, social, competence/mastery, and stimulus avoidance. Data were collected from 1,151 subjects representing a wide range of people.This study revealed some interesting trends to be considered in program planning. For example, females seek more intellectual leisure than males, and males want their leisure and recreation to involve more competence/mastery or physiological aspects than females. Moreover, as a person gets older, social reasons to engage in leisure decrease. Married and separated individuals have fewer social leisure needs. Finally, those in lower income levels have stronger intellectual, social, and competence/mastery needs than those in higher income levels. In conclusion, it can be empirically stated that five needs or motivators operated on the subjects' leisure and recreation. Reported findings were generic; their purpose was to enable practitioners and educators to gain insights and devise strategies to cater to human leisure and recreation needs in any given community, society, or culture.





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