Employment Motive of Summer Job Seekers in Recreation Settings: A Test of Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory


  • Andrew Hoff
  • Gary Ellis
  • John Crossley


Seasonal employees, motivation, hygiene, job satisfaction, Herzberg.


The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of Frederick Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory with seasonal leisure service employees and to determine if motivation and hygiene importance ratings differ by gender, school status, and desired job settings. More than 400 randomly selected attendees at a recreation and leisure summer job fair rated twenty-eight motives on a ten-point scale. Factor analysis was applied to the data to determine if distinct motivation and hygiene factors could be identified in support of the theory. Motivation and hygiene importance ratings were then compared across categories of gender, school status (high school, college, nonstudent), and desired job settings (resident camps, day camps, pool/aquatics, playgrounds/recreation centers, and hotels/restaurants). Results supported the validity of the theory with summer job seekers. High school students were also found to rate desire for hygiene factors significantly higher than college students.





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