Sources of Power: Differences Among Park and Recreation Employees and Their Bosses


  • Cheryl S. Beeler


Power, sources, executives, administrators, supervisors, influence.


Power has become a very important part of contemporary managers' ability to accomplish goals of an agency as well as to enhance the development of their subordinates. This study examines the differences among 499 municipal parks and recreation executives, administrators, and supervisors and their perceptions of power of their immediate bosses. The six sources of power investigated are expert, reward, referent, legitimate, coercive, and upward influence. The modifying variables considered are sex, length of time served under an immediate supervisor, and length of experience in the profession.The findings suggest that executives and administrators are influenced to follow orders by bosses with upward influence among important people in authority whereas lower level supervisors tend to be influenced by the knowledge and skill (expert power) of their immediate bosses.





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