Expanding Citizen-Professional Partnerships: ''Grass Roots'' Community Development of Leisure Opportunity
Keywords:citizen involvement, community development, partnerships, empowerment, actualization, neighborhoodism, catalysUfacilitator, stewardship, self-help/-advocacy
AbstractThe process of "community development" for increased citizen participation in service delivery takes on new meanings when looked at for its contribution to public recreation/leisure services. This article briefly reviews the origins of this movement, and stresses the importance of training park and recreation professionals to serve as the catalyst for involving interested and concerned citizens as more fully equal partners in providing services.Public tax revolts and "Reaganomics" have created public fiscal resource shortages, limiting the abilities of many public agencies to continue to provide direct service in the future. Involving citizens as equal partners in the provision of leisure opportunities is increasingly a financial necessity. Using the techniques of "community development" can provide a public park and recreation agency with expanded monetary and human resource support to assist with ongoing program and facility operations.In addition to operational support, the recruitment, training, and supervision of citizen involvement makes a valuable contribution to the concept of "building community." People gain specific skills and work together to accomplish their community's collective goals. This process of "people empowerment" is an important vehicle for the personal development of responsible and concerned citizens actively involved in controlling their own lives and directly changing the environment in which thctY live to a more positive one.The city of San Jose, California is presented as a case study, illustrating ways collective goals are being accomplished through unique cooperative ventures, involving community residents, local officials, and human service professionals.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Park and Recreation Administration to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.