The Role of Elements of Theory of Planned Behavior in Mediating the Effects of Constraints on Intentions: A Study of Oregon Big Game Hunters


  • Suresh K. Shrestha
  • Roberts C. Burns
  • Jinyang Deng
  • John Confer
  • Alan R. Graefe
  • Elizabeth A. Covelli


Theory of planned behavior, deer hunting, constraints, hunting participation, mediation effects


This study aimed to explore the degree to which the antecedents of theory of planned behavior (TPB) (i.e., attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control [PBC]) mediated the relationship of hunting constraints with deer hunting intention. The data were collected using a mail back survey in 2009. The sample consisted of 359 hunters randomly selected from the list of the hunters who had purchased an Oregon big game (deer, elk, and/or bear) hunting license in 2008. The TPB elements exhibited moderate to strong negative correlations with the four constraint dimensions (site and management; partner and health; skill and confidence; and time, distance, and money), except for the correlation between subjective norms and partner and health. The mediation analysis showed that constraints affected deer hunting intention directly and indirectly through the elements of the TPB, especially the PBC. Management implications suggested in the manuscript include the possibility of reducing the impacts of constraints on hunting intention, by enhancing level of confidence (PBC) of the hunters through methods such as skill enhancement training, increasing harvesting success through game population management, and extending hunting opportunities in public and private lands. We also suggest the development of promotional programs targeting women and minorities. Future research might focus on extending the TPB by integrating constraints to offer a more practical dimension to the TPB. Conversely, constraint research may examine the role of attitude, subjective norms, and PBC on constraint negotiation.





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