An Analysis of Perceived Constraints to Outdoor Recreation
Keywords:ethnic minorities, marginalized groups, outdoor recreation, perceived barriers/constraints, underparticipation
AbstractOutdoor recreation has been an integral part of American life for many decades. While overall participation in outdoor recreation is expected to grow with the population, participation per capita is expected to decline partly because of projected structural change in sociodemographics in future. Previous studies have revealed a significant variation among ethnic and marginalized groups in terms of their interest in and constraints toward participating in outdoor recreation. However, due to limited sample size and geographic coverage, many studies often failed to examine the perceived constraints faced by these ethnic and marginalized groups. This study, taking advantage of a national level household survey, analyzed whether ethnic minoritiesâ€”African-Americans, American-Indians, Asians, and native Hawaiiansâ€”and marginalized groups, such as rural dwellers, females, and older people in American society perceived more constraints to outdoor recreation activities than their counterparts (Whites, urban dwellers, males, and younger people). Seventeen constraints related to health, safety, socioeconomic standing, and other personal or psychological factors were examined employing logistic regression model. Results indicated ethnic minorities, older people, females, and rural dwellers perceived more constraints to outdoor recreation than their respective counterparts. Comparing these results to an earlier study, marginalized groups in American society perceive more constraints today than a decade ago to outdoor recreation. Hence, outdoor recreation planning and management agencies may utilize these findings to help enhance their understanding of the limitations and barriers to outdoor recreation encountered by different sociodemographic and ethnic groups. Furthermore, as many of these constraints were related to personal safety, language, money, time, and transport, agencies may have the ability to help ameliorate many of these constraints through localized actions. For instance, the personal safety constraint may be addressed by making recreation sites physically safer (i.e., better lighting, promoting a user buddy system). Language-related constraints could be reduced by making information available in multiple languages. Some money-related constraints may be addressed by adopting discriminating prices policies to different visitors. Timeand transport-related constraints may be somewhat addressed by connecting public parks and recreation sites to public transport routes. As the share of ethnic minorities and elderly people in American population is expected to increase in the future, innovation in outreach, marketing, and recruitment may be needed to increase their participation to outdoor recreation.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Park and Recreation Administration to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.