Facilitating Innovation in Leisure Service Organizations
Keywords:Rapid innovation, minimum viable product, evaluation, empathy, prototype
AbstractThe landscape facing park and recreation departments has changed dramatically over the last few decades. Factors facilitating this change include but are not limited to technological advancements, increasing numbers of private leisure service providers, demographic shifts, and budget reductions. Accordingly, park and recreation departments face a new reality, shared across almost all industries, where organizational relevance and longevity are tied to the ability to strategically innovate. Organizations that effectively innovate to best position themselves to address and take advantage of changing circumstances thrive. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to introduce one nonprofit’s rapid innovation process (RIP) that has facilitated the completion of complex projects in two to three focused days, which previously took months to complete. The RIP is built upon the work of Eric Ries (2011) and the Stanford University Institute of Design (2015a), and details a process involving sequenced preparatory work followed by focused onsite workdays with team members assuming predetermined facilitating roles. The end goal of the process is to produce a prototype or minimum viable product (MVP; Ries, 2011) and provide it to end users as rapidly as possible. The logic behind this approach is that an organization will only know the true viability of their products and services once they are consumed or experienced by their end users. This approach goes against traditional product and service development, which focuses on providing end users a fully polished, complete end product. The RIP makes the argument that most first-version products and services are not what end users actually want, and so the quicker end-user feedback can be obtained the better; thus the need for a rapid prototyping process. This paper outlines the steps, roles, and outcome of the RIP, and presents a case study example of how the process was to create and pilot test a custom outcome evaluation tool. Using the RIP, the project team was able to define constructs, create item pools, develop a pilot test, collect and analyze data, and create a final measurement tool in only two in-person workdays. The authors hope to provide sufficient details and guidance about the RIP to allow for its implementation by other organizations and practitioners.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Park and Recreation Administration to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.