Whitewater Recreationists’ Tradeoffs among Social, Resource, and Managerial Attributes Segmented by Specialization Level
Keywords:discrete choice, whitewater recreation, specialization, preferences, tradeoffs
AbstractRecreation specialization is a leisure concept used frequently in outdoor recreation; applied here to further understand heterogeneity among whitewater boaters. This study used a sample of two low-use Oregon rivers (one managed by the U.S. Forest Service and one by the Bureau of Land Management). To provide for the best possible low-use experience, managers should understand boaters’ preferences of social, resource, and managerial attributes and the relative importance placed on those attributes. This research analyzed whether preferences and tradeoffs of 308 whitewater boaters for social, resource and managerial attributes of riverscapes differ in level of recreation specialization in whitewater boating. A visual discrete choice experiment explored the differences in preferences and tradeoff behavior for river trip scenarios between three specialization groups. The results revealed that boaters with different specialization levels had similar preferences for two social attributes (number of people on the river, waiting time for parking). Paddlers of all specialization levels placed high importance on the attribute number of people on the river, suggesting that this attribute plays a significant role for boaters recreating in low-use settings. Most boaters were willing to tolerate managerial restrictions (e.g., river access fee) to achieve the desired low-use river experience. River management can ensure low-use levels by using direct management systems such as user fee up to eight dollars, or partial allocation systems. The resource attributes (river difficulty, trip length) differed among the specialization groups confirming that more specialized boaters are looking for a more challenge-driven experience. Resource managers can use this information to define a target group for a specific river. Finally, length can be adjusted according to the specialization level of the target group by offering more river access areas. Study findings suggest that preferences and tradeoff behavior are not always consistent along the specialization continuum and that a low-use river setting attracts a particular target group of boaters. Subscribe to JPRA
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Park and Recreation Administration to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.